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Flashcards in Path 2 first quiz Deck (50):
1

functions of the kidney

Blood pH
water and salt concentration
waste elimination
hormones

2

hormones of the kidney

Renin-BP
erythropoeitin
prostaglandings

3

prostaglandins

precursors for hormones

4

forms RBCs

erythropoietin

5

four compartments

glomeruli-filtration of blood:Renin-BP
tubules-collection system
Interstitial tissues
Vessels of the kidney

6

glomular pathology

usually immunological

7

pathology of the tubules

due to bacterial toxins

8

pseudo fenstration

holes in endothelial tissue that filter blood

9

between 2 _____ are filtration slits and they are important for the formation of _____

podocyte, urine

10

Mesangial cells are a type of _____ cell that occupies space within the ______

stromal, glomeruli

11

this cell can replicate, fight infection, and become sclerotic if there is excess proliferation

mesangial cells

12

antibody-antigen complex attaches to the wall of vessels. deposited between basement membrane and endothelial cells

circulating immune complex deposition

13

subentimal layer

between basement membrane and endothelial cells

14

circulating immune complex deposition is a type ___ hypersensitivity

III

15

prevents normal filtration of the blood due to

circulating immune complex deposition

16

Heymann's glomerular nephritis is not a _____ reaction

hypersensitivity

17

Anti-GBM glomerulonephritis

Type 2 hypersensitivity-destroys podocytes

18

are very permeable to water, but impermeable to blood cells, proteins, albumins

Glomeruli

19

for unknown reasons, the glomeruli is damaged and there is increased
permeability of RBC's and decreased permeability of water.

In nephritic syndrome

20

blood in the urine, with red blood casts

Hematuria

21

(limited or diminished amount of urine produced)

Oliguria

22

production of renin is the first step in a cascade. The end product is the formation of Angiotensin
II, which leads to the____ in the blood pressure.

increase

23

elevated blood levels of
blood urea nitrogen AKA: BUN and creatinine which is closely related to reduced glomerular
filtration rate

azotemia

24

antibodies of streptococcus is produced and the antibodies can also
destroy the glomerular wall

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

25

Some viral infections (measles, etc) in children may also result in this condition. It is curable
with corticosteroids

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

26

50% of cases of this in the adult is transferred
into chronic glomerularnephritis and only 1% in children

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

27

swelling underneath the eyes – common with

kidney problem

28

MOST DANGEROUS. it is a complex of
disorders (not a disease) characterized by rapid and progressive kidney pathology (oligouria) and
death within weeks or months.

Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

29

glomeruli will become crescent shaped and obstruct the lumen of the proximal convoluted
tubule and urine will build up inside the kidney and increase hydrostatic pressure within the
glomerular basement membrane. This prevents circulation of the blood. (the prognosis of the
disease is based in the amount of crescent cells – 80% or more is fatal)

Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

30

idiopathic more than 50%

Type I- (Anti-GBM)- ( type II
hypersensitivity reaction)

31

characterized by development of
autoimmune aggression against two basement membranes. The Abs will form against
Ags of the membranes. (lungs and kidney)

Good pasture’s syndrome (anti-GCM)

32

This is curable, via plasmapheresis

Good pasture’s syndrome

33

if there is protein in the urine =

PATHOLOGY

34

development of aggression against the basement membrane ( type II
hypersensitivity reaction)

Type I- (Anti-GBM)

35

it is associated with Type III hypersensitivity
reactions.

Type II- (Immune Complex Deposition)

36

Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with

Type II- (Immune Complex Deposition)

37

classic autoimmune disease that involves young ladies
– 20s. It is more common in African Americans

Systemic lupus erythematosus

38

Causes – UV radiation, intake of
sulfasalysitic drugs, vaccination

Systemic lupus erythematosus

39

It mostly involves the skin, lungs, kidney
and cerebral vessels. Results in serious hypertension and possibly stroke. Primary
manifestation of systemic lupus is the butterfly rash. Lupus Nephritis – involvement of
the kidneys, develops quickly. This is the major cause of death in this disease. Vasculitis
of cerebral vessels is possible in SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

40

● survival is 90% at the present time
● TMT – corticosteroid therapy

Systemic lupus erythematosus

41

characterized by the development of vasculitis. It is inflammation of
the vascular wall. MOST DANGEROUS. Manifested by anti-neutrophil plasmocytic
auto-antibodies. This tells us there is an autoimmune disorder that results in vasculitis.

Type III - (Pauci-immune)

42

develops in middle aged males (can be women in older
age). It is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of the upper and lower respiratory tract
and rapidly progressing of glomerulonephritis (kidneys). You see a melting of the bones
of the face which can lead to infection and supperative inflammation. The patient is
undergoing decay. Patient will die due to acute renal failure, or secondary
complications.

Wegener's Granulematosus

43

characterized by vasculitis of the vessels throughout the body (middle and small sized arteries). With the pouching of the arteriole wall,
which gives it the name nodosa. Because of the inflammation causes weakness of the wall and pouching. The pouching of the walls can lead to rupture of the wall and obstruction of the lumen. These nodes are on every organ of the body and causes death. This disease can manifest in any organ except the lungs and the arch of the
aorta . INCURABLE. NETTER PICTURE

Polyarteritis (Periarteritis) Nodosa

44

Hematuria following an acute respiratory infection. Many cases month after month. Could also be caused by an acute intestinal or urinary infection. The patient will experience pain in the loin (lumbar spine). One of the most common diseases associated with gross hematuria. MOST COMMON glomerular disease worldwide. Hallmark is the deposition of IgA immune complexes into the
immune mesagium. (50% increase in IgA). There will also be increased concentration of IgA in the blood and IgA immune complexes in the blood. Can manifest with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura. If not controlled can switch to chronic glomerulonephritis.

IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease)

45

Type III - (Pauci-immune)

Wegener's Granulematosus
Polyarteritis (Periarteritis) Nodosa
IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease)

46

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (hemorrhagic vasculitis)- usually develops in boys in their 20's. It is characterized by four clinical syndromes:

abdominal syndrome
cutaneous syndrome
articular syndrome
crescentic glomerulonephritis

47

abdominal syndrome

it is characterized by hemorrhagic inflammation of
the stomach and duodedenal walls (gastroduodenitis).

48

cutaneous syndrome

subcutaneous hemorrhages in the buttock and
abdomen – leads to the development of purpura rash

49

articular syndrome

characterized by subclinical arthritis or at least pain
in the joints.

50

crescentic glomerulonephritis

if the patient has the first three
syndromes - and if you add crescatic glomerular nephritis makes the
prognosis much worse – 70%.