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Flashcards in Third quiz #2 Deck (60):
1

Exogenous pigments (2)

coal
tattoo

2

Miners inhale coal dust, coats bronchioles, lungs, gets into lymph nodes that causes (2)

anthracosis
coal workers pneumoconiosis

3

Pneumoconiosis means pathology in the lungs caused by ___ after inhaling some particles

scarring(fibrosis)

4

____ is the most common pathological pigment

coal

5

Endogenous pigment(3)

Melanin
hemosiderin
Copper

6

Only normal black pigment in the body is _____

melanin

7

_____ is a black pigment but is is pathologica

Homogentisic acid

8

_____ accumulates in tissues where there is a local or systemic excess of iron and represents large aggregates of _____

Hemosiderin, ferretin micelles

9

_____ is associated with deposition of hemosiderin in organs and tissues and causes a systemic overload in iron. The ____ of theses tissues is not effected and can change the ____ of the organ

Hemosiderosis, function, pigment

10

_____ is up to 50 grams of iron in the body (____ grams is normal) and causes damage to the pancreas and liver

Hemochromatosis, 2-6

11

Hemochromatosis is aka ____

primary hemochromatosis

12

Hemochromatosis involves an increase absorption of iron in the ____ and is 7:1 more prevalent in ____

GI tract, males

13

Secondary hemochromatosis can occur because of a (4

blood transfusion, malaria, hemolytic anemia, Bantu siderosis

14

Iron increases the production of ____

connective tissue

15

There is a ____ times more chance of liver cancer if you have hemochromatosis

20x

16

Liver cirrhosis happens because of stimulation of ____ formation by ____

scar tissue, iron

17

In the pancreas, iron kills the islets resulting in _____

diabetes

18

Iron can interfere with DNA, and any interference to DNA causes _____, so hemochromatosis can cause _____

neoplasm(tumor, growth), hematoma

19

_____ is a secondary hemochromatosis that derives from drinking alcoholic beverages that have been stored in iron barrels

Bantu siderosis

20

Bantu siderosis symptoms (6)

abdominal pain
hyperpigmentation of the skin
hepatomegaly
arrhythmia
liver cirrhosis
diabetes mellitus

21

Hemochromatosis can cause ____, which is the lysis of RBC's

hemolytic anemia

22

Excess Copper is called _____ disease, aka _____

Wilson's disease, hepatolenticular degeneration

23

Normally, Copper gets absorbed, goes to ____, binds to _____ forming ceruloplasmin which goes into blood, then goes back to _____ to be excreted with _____

liver, Alpha 2 globulin, liver, bile

24

In Wilson's disease, the _____ does not leave the liver. To determine the Copper levels in the body we test for ____ levels

ceruloplasmin, ceruloplasmin

25

In Wilson's disease, the first place to be affected is the ____, second is the ____, and third place is the_____

liver, brain, eyes

26

In the liver, excess copper causes _____. In the brain it acts on the _____ in the midbrain which regulates motor function, creating ____-like effects

liver fibrosis, putamen nucleus(midbrain ganglia), parkinson

27

The deposit of Copper in the ____ of the cornea is called ______

limbus, Kayser-Fleisher rings

28

Treatmnet of Wilson's disease is to use ____, is dangerous because of ____ effects that inhibit cell replication

D-penicillamine, cytolytic

29

___ is a form of coagulative necrosis and characterized by the presence of noxious products of anaerobic bacterial metabolism

Gangrene

30

____ is a condition when coagulation is sustained, _____is when phagocytic cells break down the necrotic debris and produce some liquefaction

Dry gangrene, Wet gangrene

31

____ is the lack of blood supply to a tissue

Ischemia

32

Dry gangrene is similar to _____

coagulative necrosis

33

Dry gangrene can occur in distal parts of the finger with _____. Wet gangrene in the distal parts of the fingers in ______

systemic sclerosis aka scleroderma, polyarteritis nedosa

34

______ is gangrene of the blood vessel lining that has decreased blood flow to areas normally supplied by affected vessels, leads to naked bones

Polyarteritis nedosa

35

This dry gangrene disease in smokers results in ateries and nerves being obstructed

Thromboangitis obliteran

36

Thromboangitis obliterans is aka _____

Buerger's disease

37

Wet gangrene can have these 2 anaerobic bacteria present

Clostridium perfringes, bacillus fusiformis

38

____ is bacterial infection that produces gases within tissue, usually caused by anaerobic bacteria (2)

Gas gangrene
clostridium perfringes, streptococci

39

Gangrene is used to descibe necrosis of the ____ and _____ only

extremities, intestine(small usually)

40

Having ____ can also develop wet gangrene due to excess pressure reducing blood flow causing cell death

bed sores

41

Types of dystrophic calcification (4)

Ghon's focus, Systemic sclerosis, rheumatic fever, atherosclerosis


42

____ is the deposition of calcium salt into necrotic tissue and may or may not be associated with hypercalcemia

Dystrophic calcification

43

An example of dystrophic calcification is when TB results in caseous necrosis, the bacteria is surrounded by the body's defense called ____ which gets calcified by dystrophic calcification. This is a sign that the TB has been killed.

Ghon's focus(aka primary tuberculosis complex)

44

Atheroma is necrotic accumulation, builds up calcium deposits, which causes _____. Systemic sclerodoma(systemic sclerosis), is the overactivity of ____ that produce excess connective tissue. In the skin of the hand it causes a condition known as _____

atherosclerosis, fibroblasts, sclerodactyl(claw like hands)

45

______ involves the calcification of necrotic aortic valves

Rheumatic heart disease (Rheumatic fever)

46

_____ is the deposition of calcium into normal tissue(ex: kidney stones) and _____ is usually needed for it to happen. It turns tissue to necrotic or atrophic.

Metastatic calcification, hypercalcemia

47

causes of metastatic calcification (5)

increased secretion of PTH
destruction of bone
Vit D related disorders
sarcoidosis
renal failure

48

Destruction of bone(3)

accelerated turnover
immobilization
tumors

49

With destruction of bone, accelerated turnover is called _____

Paget's disease

50

Immobilization results in ____

osteoporosis

51

Tumors (3)

multiple myeloma
leukemia
multiple skeletal metastasis

52

Vitamin ___ increases absorption of calcium

D

53

Renal failure occurs in ____

secondary hyperparathyroidism

54

____ is a pathway of cell death that is induced by a tightly regulated intracellular program in which cells destined to die activate enzymes that degrade the cell's own DNA

Apoptosis

55

Normal apoptosis (3)

- programmed cell death during embryogenesis
- hormone dependent involution (menstruation)
- cell death induced by cytotoxic T-cells(to combat virus/cancer cells)

56

Abnormal apoptosis (2)

- cell injury in certain viral diseases
- death of neutrophils in acute inflammatory response

57

___ is most susceptible to ischemia, followed by ___. The ____ is not very susceptible to ishemia

Brain, myocardium, liver

58

Other areas susceptible to ishemia (3)

kidneys
spleen
lung

59

The brain requires ____% of the body's O₂ supply

20%

60

Tissues with a high mitosis rate are susceptible to _____

ionizing radiation