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Flashcards in Third quiz Deck (84):
1

redness

rubor

2

calor

heat

3

tumor

swelling

4

dolor

pain

5

loss of funtion

functio Laesa

6

______ are present before capillaries that regulate blood flow

sphincters

7

Where does the exchange of nutrients take place?

capillaries (also the only site of gas exchange)

8

outer most part of a blood vessel is called the

basement membrane

9

inner layer to the basement membrane and lines the lumen

endothelia

10

_____ gaps in the capillaries are the where nutrient are exchanged

endothelial

11

Pinocytic vesicles

where cell digest extracellular fluid and its contents

12

two forces that pull fluid out of capillaries

blood osmotic pressure
tissue hydrostatic pressure

13

Components to inflammation (2)

vascular component
cellular component

14

vascular component to inflammation involves these two things

hyperemia-increased blood flow

increased permeability of blood vessels

15

What happens in the cellular component of inflammation

blood cells flow into site of inflammation

16

_____ tissues cannot be inflamed

avascular

17

Chondroitis in inflammation of what?

note- same concept applies to IVDS and lens

tissues surrounding!!! the cartilage

*not the actual cartilage b/c it is avascular

18

protein rich fluid that leaks blood cells into the tissues at site of injury

Exudate

19

specific gravity greater than 1.020

Exudate

20

function of Exudate

creates space for healing of damaged tissue

21

specific gravity less than 1.012

Transudate (not protein rich)

22

Exudate vs Transudate. Which one is more pathological

Exudate

23

Hyperemia

What does it increase?

increase of blood flow via quick vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation and increases the blood hydrostatic pressure

24

Hyperemia enlarges the capillaries __-__% more than normal

20-30%

25

slowing blood flow so that its movements in the capillary and venules stops

stasis

26

blood at ____ end of capillary is more viscus

distal

27

increased permeability of vessels is caused by

1. constriction of endothelia cells inside vessel increasing gaps
2. loss of protein into tissue (increases osmotic pressure of tissue)

28

oncotic:

proteins

29

Osmotic

solutes

30

% of blood proteins albumin

55% albumin

31

% of blood proteins globulins

40-45% (antibodies)

32

% of blood proteins fibrinogen

5% fibrinogen

33

benefits of inflammation

1. swelling-pain makes you stop activities
2. dissolution of toxins-makes them less damaging to tissue
3. Exudate-brings antibodies to destroy pathogens
4. phagocytosis to destroy pathogens

34

types of exudate

serous inflammation
fibrinous inflammation
suppurative (purulent) inflammation

35

only fluid is allowed to escape interstitial fluid

serous inflammation
e.g. common cold, second degree burns/blisters

36

enzymatic formation of fibrin strands

fibrinous inflammation (pericarditis, myocarditis, rheumatic pericarditis)

37

can hear friction rubbing in heart beats

fibrinous inflammation of heart (fluid must be removed)

38

bad type of inflammation

fibrinous

39

presence of puss/yellowish color that can transmit disease to other parts of the body

suppurative/Purulent inflammation (should be removed immediately)

40

Types of suppurative/purulent inflammation

1. abscess
2. cellulitis
3. empyema

41

type of purulent inflammation: localized accumulation of puss that develops at a focus when the cause can not be neutralized

abscess

42

formation of cavity due to proteolytic enzymes

lung abscess

43

abscess in brain

parameningeal abscess

44

diffuse/widespread formation of suppurative inflammation

cellulitis

45

abscess only found in pleural and dubural cavity

epyemal

46

subdural abscess is found in the

arachnoid space

47

passive witnesses of inflammation

RBCs (hemorrhagic inflammation)

48

cellular factors of the exudates formation

1. rbc's adhere to eachother, making them aggregate
2. WBCs move to the periphery of flow near endothelial cell walls of vessels... "pavementing"
3. Leukocyte emigration (in post-capillary venules)

49

blood vessels move to walls of periphery when RBCs aggregate is called

"pavementing"

50

WBCs passing through cell membranes is called

DIAPEDESIS-passive process

51

active (leukocyte) emigration only occurs in

post-capillary venules

52

poly-nuclear WBCs

Eosinophils 2
basophils 2+
neutrophils 2

53

mononuclear cells

monocytes
lymphocytes

54

what cell is colored blue?

basophil

55

neutrophils are more commone when?

first 12 hours of inflammation

56

monocytes increase in number throughout the _____

week

57

monocytes turn into macrophages when....

they leave the blood

58

phagocytic cells

neutrophil Never
eosinophin Eat
monocyte Manure

59

process of phagocytosis

1. Chemotaxis
2. adherence and engulfing
3.digestion
4. phagocytosis

60

oxygen dependent mechanisms for killing an intruder (4)

1. lysozyme
2. elastase
3. collegenase
4. defensin

61

acts like antibodies inside neutrophils

defensins

62

oxygen dependent mechanisms for killing intruders

free radicals

63

account for oxidative reactions

hydrogen peroxide

64

Free radicals

superoxide Super
hypochlorite hy
hydrogen peroxide hydro

65

Mediators, cell-derived of inflammation

Histamine
serotonin
substance P
Nitric Oxide

66

found in type 1 hypersensitivity reactions

histamine

67

major reservoir for histamine in the body

mast cells/basophils

68

Mast cell vs Basophil

Mast cell is fixated on tissue
basophils are in blood

69

Functions of histamine (4)

1. Vasodilation
2. Increases permeability of vessels
3. Bronchospasm
4. increase mucous production by mucous gland in bronchioles

70

Increases permeability of vessels aka

endothelial retraction

71

narrowing of the respiratory tree

brochospasm

72

aka "hormone of pleasure" that produces platelets and functions similar to histamine

serotonin

73

substance P functions

promote production of pain
regulate blood pressure
increases permeability of BV

74

produced by nervous fibers in the peripheral and Central NS and lungs and GI nervous tissue

Substance P

75

AKA endothelial derived releasing hormone

Nitric Oxide

76

produced by endothelial cellls of blood vessels, macrophages
brain neurons

Nitric oxide

77

Inhibitor the cellular component of inflammation

Nitric Oxide

78

Functions of Nirtic Oxide

Vasodilator
prevents recruitment of neutophil to site of inflammation, inhibits adhesion of WBCs to endothelial cells (pavementing)

79

55-60% of wbcs

neutophils

80

2-4% of wbcs

eosinophils (red colored)

81

.5-1% of wbcs

basophils

82

20-25% of wbcs

lymphocytes

83

4-8% in circulation

monocytes

84

chronic granulomatous

rare, found in TB and leprosy
usually due to microbacteria
multinucleated giant cells found combining macrophages
has fibroblasts in out area of fibrous tissue