Fiser Chapter 28 GUT HORMONES Flashcards Preview

ABSITE > Fiser Chapter 28 GUT HORMONES > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fiser Chapter 28 GUT HORMONES Deck (38):
1

What cells produce:
1. Gastrin
2. Somatostatin
3. CCK
4. Secrein
5. VIP
6. Glucagon
7. Insulin
8. Pancreatic polypeptide
0. Motilin
10. Bombesin

1. Gastrin: antral G cells
2. Somatostain: antral D cells
3. CCK: duodenal I cells
4. Secretin: duodenal S cells
5. VIP: gut and panc
6. Glucagon: pancreas alpha cells
7. Insulin: pancreas beta cells
8. Pancreatic polypeptide: pancreas islet cells
9. Motilin: intestinal cells

2

What stimulates and inhibits gastric release from antral G cells?

Stimulated by: amino acids, vagal input (ACh), Calcium, EtOH, Antral distension, pH > 3.0

Inhibits: pH<3.0, somatostain, secretin, CCK

3

Gastrin does what?

Acts on parietal and chief cells to increase HCL, IF, and pepsinogen activation

4

Omeprazole MoA

Blocks H/K ATPase of parietal cell (final pathway for H+ release)

5

What stimulates somatostatin release from antral D cells?

Acid in duodenum

6

What is the response to somatostatin?

Inhibits gastrin and HCL release

Inhibits release of insulin, glucagon, secretin, motilin

Decreases pancreatic and biliary output

7

What can be used to decrease pancreatic fistula output?

Ocreotide

8

What stimulates CCK release from duodenal I cells?

Amino acids and fatty acid chains

9

What is the response to CCK?

Gallbladder contraction, sphincter of Oddi relaxation, and pancreatic enzyme secretion

10

What stimulates and inhibits secretin release from duodenal S cells?

Stimulated by: fat, bile, pH<4.0

Inhibited by pH>4.0 and gastrin

11

What is the response to secretin?

Pancreatic bicarb release (decreased in chronic pancreatitis and end stage pancreatitis)

Inhibited gastrin release (reversed in gastrinoma)

Inhibited HCL release

12

Pancreatic Secretin Test

Normal 2ml/kg/hr, bicarb >10mmol/L/hr, amylase 6-18 IU/kg

1. Chronic panc: decreased bicarb
2. End stage panc: decreased all
3. Malnutrition: decreased enzyme
Panc cancer: decreased volume
Zollinger-Ellision: increased volume

13

What stimulates VIP release?

Fat and ACh

14

What is the response to VIP?

Increased intestinal secretion (water and electrolytes) and motility

15

VIPoma

WDHA: watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria

16

What stimulates and inhibits

Stimulated by: low glucose, high amino acids, ACh

Inhibited by: glucose, insulin, somatostatin

17

Result of glucagon?

Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, ketogenesis, decreased HCL, decreased GI motility, relaxes sphincter of Oddi

18

What stimulates and inhibits insulin?

Stimulated by: glucose, glucagons, CCK

Inhibited by: somatostatin

19

Response to insulin?

Cellular glucose uptake, promotes protein synthesis

20

What stimulates pancreatic polypeptide from panc islet cells?

Food, vagus, hormons

21

Pancreatic polypeptide response?

Decrased pancreatic and gallbladder secretion

22

What stimulates and inhibits motilin release by gut intestinal cells?

Stimulated by: duodenal acid, food, vagus

Inhibited by: somatostatin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, duodenal fat

23

Motilin response?

Increased motility (small bowel; phase III peristalsis) --> erythromycin acts here

24

Bombesin

Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)

Causes increased intestinal motor activity, increased pancreatic enzyme secretion, and increased gastric acid secretion

25

Peptide YY

Ileal break

Released from TI after a fatty meal

inhibits acid secretion and stomach contraction

Inhibits gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion

26

What mediates anorexia?

Hypothalamus

27

Bowel recovery order

Small bowel 24 hours

Stomach 48 hours

Large bowel 3-5 days

28

Enterokinase

Activates trypsinogen to trypsin -> activates other enzymes of digestion

29

MMC phases

Interdigestive motility; 90 min cycles; starts in stomach, goes to TI

I. quiescence
II. gallbladder contraction
III. peristalsis
IV. subsiding electric activity

30

Where is gastrin made?

antrum G cell

31

Where is somatostatin made?

antrum D cell

32

Where is CCK made?

duodenal I cell

33

Where is secretin made?

duodenal S cells

34

Where is VIP made?

Gut and pancreas cells

35

Where is glucagon made?

pancreatic Alpha cells

36

Where is insulin made?

pancreas Beta cells

37

Where is pancreatic polypeptide made?

Panc islet cells

38

Where is motilin made?

Intestinal cells