Fiser Chapter 6 ANTIBIOTICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser Chapter 6 ANTIBIOTICS Deck (53):
1

Betadine

An iodophor
Good for GPCs and GNRs
Not for fungi

2

Chlorhexidine gluconate

e.g. Hibiclens
Good for GPCs, GNRs, and fungi

3

Quinolone MoA

DNA gyrase/helicase inhibitors

4

Rifampin MoA

RNA polymerase inhibitor

5

PCN MoA

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor

6

Vanc MoA

cell wall synthesis inhibitor

7

Cephalosporin MoA

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor

8

Carbapenem MoA

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor

9

Monobactam (aztreonam) MoA

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor

10

Tetracycline MoA

30s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

11

Aminoglycoside MoA

e.g. Tobramycin, Gentamicin
30s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

12

Linezolid MoA

30s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

13

Erythromycin MoA

50s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

14

Clindamycin MoA

50s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

15

Synercid MoA

50s ribosome and protein synthesis inhibitor

16

Metronidzole MoA

Free radicals break DNA

17

Sulfa MoA

PABA analogue, inhibits purine synthesis

18

Trimethoprim MoA

DHFR inhibitor, inhibits purine synthesis

19

Most common method of abx resistance

Transfer of plasmids

20

PCN resistance

beta-lactamase plasmids

21

MRSA resistance

cell wall binding protein mutation PBP2a

22

Gentamicin resistance

Modifying enzymes cause decreased active transport of gentamicin into bacteria

23

PCN spectrum

Strep, syphilis, N meningitis, C perfringens, GAS, anthrax
Gap: staph and enterococcus

24

Oxacillin and nafcillin spectrum

Staph only: "anti-staph penicillins"

25

Ampicillin and amoxicillin spectrum

strep, syphilis, N meningitides, C perfringens, GAS, anthrax, +enterococcus
Gap: staph

26

Unasyn (amp/sulbactam) and Augmentin (amox/clav) spectrum

GPCs (staph and strep), GNRs, +/- anaerobes, enterococcus
Gap: PAS pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia

27

Ticarcillin and piperacillin spectrum

GNRs (pseudomonas, enterics, acinetobacter, serratia)
Side effect: inhibits platelets, high salt load

28

Timentin (ticarcillin/clav) and Zosyn (pip/sulbactam) spectrum

Broad spectrum: GPCs (staph and strep), GNRs, anaerobes, enterococci, PAS pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratioa
Side effect: inhibits platelets, high salt load

29

Cefazolin, cephalexin (1st gen cephalo) spectrum

GPCs (staph and strep)
Gap: no cephalo for an enterococcus; no CNS
Cefazolin longest t1/2 so good for ppx

30

Cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefuroxime (2nd gen cephalo) spectrum

GPCs, GNRs, +/- anaerobe, los some staph
Gap: enterococcus and CNS
Cefotetan longest t1/2 so good for ppx

31

Ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefotaxime (3rd gen cephalo)

GNRs mostly including PAS pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia, +/- anaerobes
Gap: enterococcus
Side effects: cholestasis, sludge

32

Aztreonam (monobactam) spectrum

GNRs; PAS pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia

33

Carbapenems with cilastatin spectrum

GPC, GNR, anaerobes
Gap: MEP MRSA, enterococcus, proteus
Cilastin prevents renal hydrolysis and increases t1/2
Side effect: seizures

34

Bactrim spectrum

GNRs, +/- GPCs
Gap: enterococcus, PAS
Side effects: teratogenic, allergic rxn, renal damage, SJS (EM), hemolysis in G6PD def

35

Cipro, levo, norflox (quinolone) spectrum

Mostly GNRs, PAS, some GPCs
Gap: enterococcus

36

Gentamicin, Tobramycin (aminoglycosides)

GNRs, PAS
Gap: anaerobes (need O2)
Amp/gen: synergy for enterococcus; beta lactams facilitate penetration
Side effects: reversible nephrotoxicity, irreversible ototoxicity

37

Erythromycin (macrolide) spectrum

GPCs, CAP and atypical PNA
Side effect: nausea and cholestasis
Prokinetic: binds motilin receptor

38

Vancomycin (a glycopeptide) spectrum

GPCs, enterococcus, C diff if PO, MRSA
Side effects: HTN, redman (histamine), nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity

39

Vanc resistance mechanism

Change in cell-wall binding protein

40

Synercid (streptogramin) aka quinupristin-dalfopristin spectrum

GPCs, MRSA, VRE

41

Linezolid (oxazolidinone) spectrum

GPCs, MRSA, VRE

42

Tetracycline spectrum

GPCs, GNRs, syphilis
Side effects: tooth discoloration in kids

43

Clindamycin spectrum

anaerobes, some GPCs

44

Metronidazole spectrum

anaerobes
Side effects: disulfiram-like reaction, peripheral neuropathy with longterm use

45

Amphotericin MoA, side effects

Binds sterols in wall and alters membrane permeability
Side effects: nephrotoxic
Liposomal has fewer side effects
Use for all fungal sepsis except candida (anidulafungin) and aspergillus (voriconazole)

46

Voriconazole and itraconazole MoA

Inhibit ergosterol synthesis
Invasive aspergillosis

47

Anidulafungin (eraxis)

Inhibits cell wall glucan synthesis
Candidemia

48

Isoniazid MoA and side effects

Inhibits mycolic acids (give with pyridoxine)
Side effects: Hepatotoxicity, B6 deficiency

49

Rifampin MoA and side effects

Inhibits RNA polymerase
Side effects: Revs up 450; hepatotoxicity, GI symptoms, high rate of resistance

50

Acyclovir MoA and use

Inhibits viral DNA polymerase
HSV and EBV

51

Ganciclovir MoA, use, side effect

inhibits viral DNA polymerase
CMV
Side effects: decreased bone marrow, CNS toxicity

52

Enterococcus treatment

Vancomyin
Timentin/zosyn
Ampicillin/amoxicillin
Gentamycin/ampicillin

53

Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Serratia tx

Ticarcillin/piperacillin
Timentin/zosyn
Third gen cephalosporins
Aminoglycosides (gentamicin and tobramycin)
Meropenem/imipenem
Fluoroquinolones