Fiser Chapter 4 IMMUNOLOGY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser Chapter 4 IMMUNOLOGY Deck (29):
1

Types of T-cells

CD4 helper
CD8 suppressor
CD8 cytotoxic

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CD4 helper T-cells do what

IL-2 release -> maturation of CD8 cytotoxic T cells

IL-4 release -> B cell maturation into plasma cells -> Ab mediated humoral response

Delayed type hypersensitivity

3

IL-2 leads to

maturation of CD8 cytotoxic T cells

IL-2 therapy (melanoma?):
-Converts lymphocytes to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells by enhancing immune response to tumor
-Converts lymphocytes into tumor-infiltration lymphocytes

4

IL-4 leads to

B-cell maturation into plasma cells -> Ab mediated humoral response

5

CD8 suppressor cells do what

regulated CD4 and CD8 cells

6

CD8 cytotoxic T cells do what

Recognize and attack non-self antigens attached to MHC class I receptors (e.g. viral gene products)

7

Example of cell-mediated immunity

Intradermal TB skin test

8

MHC class I (A, B, C) does what

All nucleated cells have it -> Presents Ag to CD8 cytotoxic cells -> CD8 cell activation

-Viral proteins

9

MHC class II (DR, DP, DQ) does what

On all Ag-presenting cells (monocytes, dendritic cells) -> CD4 helper T-cell activation -> Interacts with B-cell surface IgM -> stimulates Ab formation

-Bacterial proteins

10

Natural killer (NK) cells do what

Recognize cells that lack self-MHC -> natural immunosurveillance for cancer

-Not T or B cell
-Do not require MHC, prior exposure, or Ag presentation

11

Antibody types

Ig GAMED

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IgG

-Secondary immune response

-Crosses placenta

-Opsonin, if x2 fixes complement

13

IgA

-Secretions, Peyer's patches, breast milk

-Prevents gut microbial adherence and invasion

14

IgM

-Initial Ab after exposure to Ag

-Largest (5 domains, 10 binding site)

-Opsonin, x1 fixes complement

15

IgE

-Allergic reactions
-Parasite infections

16

Constant and variable regions of Ab

Constant: recognized by PMNs and macrophages. Fc fragment does NOT carry variable region

Variable: Ag recognition

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Polyclonal Ab

Multiple binding sites to Ag at multiple epitopes

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Monoclonal Ab

1 binding site to 1 epitope

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Hypersensitivity reactions

I: immediate, IgE and eosinophils

II: IgG or IgM reacts with cell-bound Ag

III: Immune complexes

IV: DTH

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Type I hypersensitivity

Eosinophils with IgE receptor for Ag -> binds Ag -> Major basic protein release -> mast cell and basophil activation -> histamine, serotonin, bradykinin release

-Bee stings, peanuts, hay fever

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Type II hypersensitivity

IgG or IgM reacts with cell-bound Ag

-ABO incompatibility (acute hemolysis), Grave's disease, Myasthenia gravis

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Type III hypersensitivity

Immune complex deposition

-SLE, serum sickness

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Type IV hypersensitivity

Ag stimulates previously sensitized T cells

-TB skin test, contact dermatitis

24

Histamine

Blood: from basophils
Tissue: from mast cells

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Primary and secondary lymphoid organs

Primary: liver, bone, thymus
Secondary: spleen, LNs

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Immunologic chimera

2 cell lines in one individual (BMT patients)

27

Tetanus prone wounds

>6 hours old
Obvious contamination
Devitalized tissue
Crush
Burn
Frostbite
Missile injuries

28

Tetanus immunoglobulin

Give only with tetanus-prone wounds in patients not previously immunized or unknown

29

Tetanus toxoid

-Always give tetanus toxoid unless sure patient had at least 3 doses and