Fish biomechanics and locomotion - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fish biomechanics and locomotion - Part 2 Deck (53)
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1

What are the different types of locomotion?

Anguilliform
Carangiform
Subcarangiform
Thunniform
Ostraciform
(Other fins)

2

What examples species uses anguilliform locomotion?

Eel

3

Describe anguilliform locomotion.

Moves from head to tail; the entire body moves.
Large degree of contraction - many muscles involved
Can do this for a long time.
Uses trunk muscles.
Relatively slow but efficient.

4

If an anguilliform wants to swim faster, they have to make a ___________ ______ over their body.

Compulsive wave

5

What example specise uses carangiform/subcarangifrom locomotion?

Trouts and salmon

6

What is carangiform and subcarangiform locomotion?

Still a compulsive wave, uses the back 2/3rds of the body.
Mostly trunk muscles used but, head stays stable (doesnt move).

7

In subcarangiform/carangiform locomotion, the fish still has that compulsive wave but it starts at the ________ and goes all the way back.

midline

8

Subcarangiform and carangiform locomotion is _________ fast.

relatively

9

The fastest swimming fishes and tuna use this type of locomotion.

Thunniform

10

Describe thunniform locomotion.

Largely used the tail rather than the trunk muscles.
Have large, powerful tails which beat incredibly fast; do not need to wait for the compulsive wave

11

Describe Ostraciform locomotion.

Mostly using various fins rather than large trunk muscles to swim.
Use their tail fins instead of the caudal peduncle.

12

Give an example species of Ostraciform locomotion.

Box fish and porcupine fish

13

Which locomotion types are still using the trunk muscles, more or less, rather than using paired fins like _________.

Anguilliform, Carangiform/subcarangiform, thunniform
- differ in how much of the trunk they use

Ostraciform use paired fins

14

What are the reasons for the swimming ability of thunniforms?

Tail can beat incredibly fast and doesnt need to wait for propulsive wave.
Tail is large with a large surface area to beat against the water
Tend to have very large and fast twitch swimming muscles that are well supplied with blood

15

Describe paired fin locomotion.

Not using the trunk musculature but using fin musculature.
Not particularly fast but very controlled and highly maneuverable.
Can easily go forwards or backwards, side to side.
More fine-scaled control, good for reef swimming.

16

If paired fin locomotion using fish are being chased by a predator, what can they do?

Can switch to other swimming modes, can also use trunk muscles if needed.
Same thing if they are trying to catch prey.

17

What are the characteristics of red muscle?

High blood supply
Numerous mt
Glycogen stores
Don't fatigue quickly
aerobic

18

What are the characteristics of white muscle?

Less blood
Fewer mt
Glycogen depletion
fatigue quickly
strong, fast-twitch muscle

19

What is pink muscle?

Between red and white muscle.
Decent blood supply
fatigues

20

Where would red muscle be found?

Prime swimming muscles that are used for everyday swimming.

21

What activities would red muscles be used for?

Migrating long distance or swimming along a coral reef, general swimming.

22

Tuna have lots of ____ muscle.

red

23

Red muscle is very powerful but there is a limit on how fast it can ______.

twitch

24

When would white muscle be used?

During a panic for burst swimming.

25

Benthic fish would have more _____ muscle. Why?

White muscle
Since they don't swim often.

26

What fish would have pink muscle?

Fish that constantly make quick movements while swimming.

27

What are the two swimming methods?

Burst and sustained

28

When would burst swimming be used?

To escape from predators or lunge at prey

29

When would sustained swimming be used?

Station holding, migration, schooling, feeding

30

How is burst swimming speed measured?

U-burst
Max velocity
Place fish in a current and provide an electric current to make the fish burst forward.

31

How is sustained swimming measured?

U-crit
max sustainable swimming speed (aka critical swimming speed)
Place fish in flowing water, then crank up water speed slowly and measure the velocity at which it can no longer swim against the current

32

What is an important component for both burst and sustained speed measurements?

Motivation

33

Burst swimming measured in the lab is often ______ than that in the wild.

lower (same with sustained)

34

Why is fish swimming even relevant?

Making submersibles using fish swimming principles to be able to to reach blocked sewer lines, go in polluted water, go to where explosives are located.

35

Fish may jump in various contexts to find _____ _________.

new habitats

36

What is needed to jump to new habitats?

1 - Incorporate lots of trunk muscles all at once to generate force
2 - Directionality

37

What is the c-start response?

Escape mechanism that fish used to escape predators.

38

Describe the c-start response.

When a fish sees a predator, it will quickly contract all the muscles on side of the body, bending to a c-shape.
Then, it will shoot off in another direction, recruiting a large number of of trunk muscles in the middle of the body.`

39

The c-start response is largely controlled by _______ ________.

mauthner neurons

40

What are mauthner neurons?

Very large hindbrain neurons that send axons out from the middle of the body.
Fire together to make the C-shape

41

Jumping to new habitats probably evolved from what>?

the c-start response.

42

How do fish aim for new habitats?

Planned c-start; recent reports suggest that some fish can memorize locations of tide pools prior to doing this.

43

What are the key attributes of teleost swimming?

1 - Fish are unstable
2 - Fins are flexible and actively controlled in 3D
3 - Body movements are conserved, and largely 2D
4 - Fish shape hugely important for hydrodynamics
5 - Kinematics change with gait and habitat

44

For teleost swimming, why are they inherently unstable?

The swim bladder makes it so that the center of buoyancy is higher than their center of mass.
So, with nothing else happening, this will cause the fish to roll over.

45

How can the inherent instability of teleost swimming be counteracted?

By using fins

46

Describe the teleost method of swimming related to fins being flexible and actively controlled in 3D.

Teleosts constantly use paired fins to adjust their position and counteract the swim bladder.
Flexible fins helped them overcome the instability issues and help them perform fine-scale directional movements.

47

Describe how body movements are conserved evoltionarily in teleosts.
What has diverged?

In the trunk, bending is the same regardless of fish.
Trunk muscles are conserved, how much is used is not.
The divergence is how fins move.

48

Describe why shape is hugely important for teleost swimming.

Body shape generally determines swimming mode.

49

What is gait?

swimming mode

50

How do the kinematics of teleost swimming change?

with habitat and gait

51

How does habitat change teleost swimming kinematics?

The amount of obstructions in the water will change how it moves it body, along with presence/absence of predators.

52

________ flow in the water will change how the fish swims.

Laminar

53

Teleosts will _____ different _______ modes as conditions change.

adapt
swimming