Flashcards in Fish biomechanics and locomotion - Part 2 Deck (53)
What are the different types of locomotion?
What examples species uses anguilliform locomotion?
Describe anguilliform locomotion.
Moves from head to tail; the entire body moves.
Large degree of contraction - many muscles involved
Can do this for a long time.
Uses trunk muscles.
Relatively slow but efficient.
If an anguilliform wants to swim faster, they have to make a ___________ ______ over their body.
What example specise uses carangiform/subcarangifrom locomotion?
Trouts and salmon
What is carangiform and subcarangiform locomotion?
Still a compulsive wave, uses the back 2/3rds of the body.
Mostly trunk muscles used but, head stays stable (doesnt move).
In subcarangiform/carangiform locomotion, the fish still has that compulsive wave but it starts at the ________ and goes all the way back.
Subcarangiform and carangiform locomotion is _________ fast.
The fastest swimming fishes and tuna use this type of locomotion.
Describe thunniform locomotion.
Largely used the tail rather than the trunk muscles.
Have large, powerful tails which beat incredibly fast; do not need to wait for the compulsive wave
Describe Ostraciform locomotion.
Mostly using various fins rather than large trunk muscles to swim.
Use their tail fins instead of the caudal peduncle.
Give an example species of Ostraciform locomotion.
Box fish and porcupine fish
Which locomotion types are still using the trunk muscles, more or less, rather than using paired fins like _________.
Anguilliform, Carangiform/subcarangiform, thunniform
- differ in how much of the trunk they use
Ostraciform use paired fins
What are the reasons for the swimming ability of thunniforms?
Tail can beat incredibly fast and doesnt need to wait for propulsive wave.
Tail is large with a large surface area to beat against the water
Tend to have very large and fast twitch swimming muscles that are well supplied with blood
Describe paired fin locomotion.
Not using the trunk musculature but using fin musculature.
Not particularly fast but very controlled and highly maneuverable.
Can easily go forwards or backwards, side to side.
More fine-scaled control, good for reef swimming.
If paired fin locomotion using fish are being chased by a predator, what can they do?
Can switch to other swimming modes, can also use trunk muscles if needed.
Same thing if they are trying to catch prey.
What are the characteristics of red muscle?
High blood supply
Don't fatigue quickly
What are the characteristics of white muscle?
strong, fast-twitch muscle
What is pink muscle?
Between red and white muscle.
Decent blood supply
Where would red muscle be found?
Prime swimming muscles that are used for everyday swimming.
What activities would red muscles be used for?
Migrating long distance or swimming along a coral reef, general swimming.
Tuna have lots of ____ muscle.
Red muscle is very powerful but there is a limit on how fast it can ______.
When would white muscle be used?
During a panic for burst swimming.
Benthic fish would have more _____ muscle. Why?
Since they don't swim often.
What fish would have pink muscle?
Fish that constantly make quick movements while swimming.
What are the two swimming methods?
Burst and sustained
When would burst swimming be used?
To escape from predators or lunge at prey
When would sustained swimming be used?
Station holding, migration, schooling, feeding