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Flashcards in Fisheries and conservation - part 1 Deck (55)
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1

Where is most of the money spent regarding fish?

Conservation or research

2

Terrestrial ecosystems starting getting negatively impacted after the _______ ______.

industrial revolution

3

There used to be no negative impacts on fisheries up until the last ___ years or so where we got more _______ at ________ fish.

30
efficient
harvesting

4

What is the FAO?

Food and Agriculture organization of the UN

5

How is the FAO pertinent to fish?

FAO is a group of the UN whose job it is to track all the food uses around the world.
A special fisheries section publishes the state of the worlds fisheries.

6

Currently, according to the FAO, we are _______ our harvest of fishes worldwide.
Total harvest is ______.
Capture is _________.
Aquaculture is _______.

Increasing
Increasing
not increasing
increasing

7

_________ is more important now in feeding the world population.

Aquaculture

8

The FAO is completely ________ and thus they cannot impose fines.
The stuff they publish is based on ____-______ from different countries and thus is an ___________ at best.

Voluntary
self-reports
underestimate

9

_______ numbers are often underreported to avoid bad publicity.

Capture

10

What are the main fishing areas based on current data?

1 - NW Pacific
2 - Central Pacific
3 - Northeast Pacific
4 - Indian Ocean

11

For the fishing areas including __________, ________ and ________, one reason for them being so good of a fishing spot is due to what?

NW Pacific, Central pacific, northeast pacific

One reason is due to coldwater which tends to drive productivity,
Related to upwelling events.

12

What is upwelling?

This is when warm water is replaced by deeper, colder water with nutriens which rises to the surface.

13

Many productive fisheries are ________ zones.

upwelling

14

In the Pacific, that upwelling is caused by _____ _____ which blow from the _____ to the _____.

Trade winds
right to left

15

In the Northern pacific, upwelling is due to patterns of _____ ______ but the result is the same.

ocean currents

16

Why is the Indian Ocean a productive fishery then?

Does get some upwelling from Antarctic currents.
One reason for it being a hotspot is because other areas have been fished out.

17

The Indian Ocean is a productive fishery currently but will probably not last because?

It has less upwelling

18

Describe the Northwest Atlantic fishery.

Canada used to sit on it
Historically one of the most productive zones
Collapsed, fished out.

19

Describe the Mediterranean fishery

Used to be hugely productive.
Small and warm-ish but had lots of new water come in.
Has seriously been crashing in the last couple of years.
No longer productive due to overfishing and pollution.

20

What is an economic exclusion zone?

Each country has its own EEZ in which they can set regulations on who can fish, how many fish can be caught and what gear can be used.
Extends from coast line to 200 miles off shore generally.

21

What is one issue with EEZs?

Outside the zones, its lawless.
- Fishing companies can bribe smaller countries
- dont have to declare catches offshore
Sometimes EEZs conflict and can be a major source of international tension.

22

According to the latest data, what is being caught the most?

Most common fish is Alaskan Pollock.
Second most common is Anchovida.

23

Anchovida is usually the most common, why wasnt it this year?

Partly due to overfishing but mainly due to El Nino.
Most Anchovida is caught off the coast of Peru but, during El Nino, trade winds die off reducing upwelling events and causing population crashes.

24

Describe the largehead hairtail.

Relatively new fish that is deep living and starting to be caught more and more globally.
Issue is that we know nothing of its life history traits.

25

Describe the common practice of fisheries once a certain species is "fished out".

Fisheries start to catch less desirable fish over the common ones.
Start exploiting deeper living species.
However, the issue is we know nothing of their population sizes, how sustainable they are or on life history traits.

26

What are the different uses of fish?

Food - fresh or frozen
Non-food purposes:
- cosmetics
- feeding livestock
Cash

27

What is the majority of fish used for?

Feeding people.

28

Fish can be used for straight up cash, what type of countries would do this?

Major exploit in developing countries.

29

What is the reason that Canada support fish research?

We are a major exporter of fish globally. Huge source of jobs.

30

Sometimes, it is easy to scientifically determine how many fish to keep constant catch rates but, ________ pressures trump this.

Economic

31

Canada remains a major exporter of fish. ________ export in millions of tonnes from 2000 to 2010.

Increasing

32

Most fish are _______.
Officially, ________ is defined as catching more fish than they can be naturally replaced.

Overfished
Overfishing

33

Define overfishing.

When catchrates exceeds natural replacement rates.

34

Over __% of fisheries are fully exploited. About __% are recovering from overfishing.

50
3

35

What are the 3 population characteristics that make it more likely to be overfished?

Slow growth
Later maturity
Relatively few offspring each time they spawn

36

Is the Great White susceptible to overfishing?

Yes.
Grow slowly, late maturity (babies at age 10) and have few offspring.
Slow replacement rate!

37

Describe a fish species that should be exploited.

Fast growing fish
Mature within a year
Have lots of offspring

38

Of the 129 species of fish in Lake Huron, ___ are extirpated or imperiled.
What is/are the causes of this?

20
Causes:
- Habitat degradation
- Invasive species

39

Define extirpated.

Locally extinct.

40

What are the causes for extirpation in lake Huron?

Historically overfishing
Habitat degradation
Invasive species

41

One study predicted the collapse of global fisheries by ______.

2048

42

What is a fishery collapse?

Means the fishery no longer has enough fish to be viable commercially. There are still fish there bu they aren't worth the company's money.

43

When there is ____ species richness, there is a _____ likelihood of fishery collapse.

low
high

44

Describe how increasing the number of species caught can lead to a stable fishery.

By increasing the number of species that are considered viable, this takes pressure off of some of the commonly fished species.
The same tonnage can be caught but there will be more variety, increasing the likelihood of rebound in fish populations.

45

Competing demands drive fisheries management.
What is the goal?
What is easier to sell to voters?

The goal is to fish at MMSY - multiple species maximum sustainable yield.
What is easier to sell to voters?
- Maintaining high employment

46

What are the competing demands that drive fisheries?

1 - Maintaining biodiversity
2 - Maintaining high catches
3 - Maintaining high employment

47

How do the competing demands conflict?
What is the best solution?

Politicians want high employment which means that they want a high catch rate initially but, that will lead to a decline.
If maintaining biodiversity is the goal, thats fine but it will have a negative economic impact in most cases.
Aim for MMSY.

48

Describe MMSY.

Highest possible sustainable exploitation rate.
Government regulators aim for a high catch rate in a sustainable way to prevent overfishing.

49

MMSY is generally what percentage of exploitation rate?

40-60%

50

What occurs as exploitation rate is increased?

Number of collapsed species increases.

51

What occurs when fishing rates increases?

total biomass caught tends to decrease

52

As overfishing is approached, what happens to the size of fish?

Mean length, max size all decrase.
See a decrease in size of fish.

53

As overfishing is approached, what exarcerbates the problem?

As overfishing begins to become more and more of a problem, the fish caught become smaller and smaller and have not reached reproductive age, furthering the issue.

54

Globally, what is the trend leaning towards for the competing demands?

Higher employment

55

Describe the study performed off the coast of Kenya on how reduced fishing was of economic benefit.

Fishermen off the coast of Kenya typically used seine nets.
These do not discriminate between fish species and can catch non-target species.
More, bigger nets can destroy reefs.
In the study, the workers worked with authorities to fish at different areas.
Some fishing has no restrictions, other areas used less destructive fishing means and some areas were completely closed off to fishing.
The least amount of money was made with no restrictions. The most was made in the less destructive fishing method and in the areas closed off due to tourism.