Fisheries and conservation - part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fisheries and conservation - part 1 Deck (55)
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1

Where is most of the money spent regarding fish?

Conservation or research

2

Terrestrial ecosystems starting getting negatively impacted after the _______ ______.

industrial revolution

3

There used to be no negative impacts on fisheries up until the last ___ years or so where we got more _______ at ________ fish.

30
efficient
harvesting

4

What is the FAO?

Food and Agriculture organization of the UN

5

How is the FAO pertinent to fish?

FAO is a group of the UN whose job it is to track all the food uses around the world.
A special fisheries section publishes the state of the worlds fisheries.

6

Currently, according to the FAO, we are _______ our harvest of fishes worldwide.
Total harvest is ______.
Capture is _________.
Aquaculture is _______.

Increasing
Increasing
not increasing
increasing

7

_________ is more important now in feeding the world population.

Aquaculture

8

The FAO is completely ________ and thus they cannot impose fines.
The stuff they publish is based on ____-______ from different countries and thus is an ___________ at best.

Voluntary
self-reports
underestimate

9

_______ numbers are often underreported to avoid bad publicity.

Capture

10

What are the main fishing areas based on current data?

1 - NW Pacific
2 - Central Pacific
3 - Northeast Pacific
4 - Indian Ocean

11

For the fishing areas including __________, ________ and ________, one reason for them being so good of a fishing spot is due to what?

NW Pacific, Central pacific, northeast pacific

One reason is due to coldwater which tends to drive productivity,
Related to upwelling events.

12

What is upwelling?

This is when warm water is replaced by deeper, colder water with nutriens which rises to the surface.

13

Many productive fisheries are ________ zones.

upwelling

14

In the Pacific, that upwelling is caused by _____ _____ which blow from the _____ to the _____.

Trade winds
right to left

15

In the Northern pacific, upwelling is due to patterns of _____ ______ but the result is the same.

ocean currents

16

Why is the Indian Ocean a productive fishery then?

Does get some upwelling from Antarctic currents.
One reason for it being a hotspot is because other areas have been fished out.

17

The Indian Ocean is a productive fishery currently but will probably not last because?

It has less upwelling

18

Describe the Northwest Atlantic fishery.

Canada used to sit on it
Historically one of the most productive zones
Collapsed, fished out.

19

Describe the Mediterranean fishery

Used to be hugely productive.
Small and warm-ish but had lots of new water come in.
Has seriously been crashing in the last couple of years.
No longer productive due to overfishing and pollution.

20

What is an economic exclusion zone?

Each country has its own EEZ in which they can set regulations on who can fish, how many fish can be caught and what gear can be used.
Extends from coast line to 200 miles off shore generally.

21

What is one issue with EEZs?

Outside the zones, its lawless.
- Fishing companies can bribe smaller countries
- dont have to declare catches offshore
Sometimes EEZs conflict and can be a major source of international tension.

22

According to the latest data, what is being caught the most?

Most common fish is Alaskan Pollock.
Second most common is Anchovida.

23

Anchovida is usually the most common, why wasnt it this year?

Partly due to overfishing but mainly due to El Nino.
Most Anchovida is caught off the coast of Peru but, during El Nino, trade winds die off reducing upwelling events and causing population crashes.

24

Describe the largehead hairtail.

Relatively new fish that is deep living and starting to be caught more and more globally.
Issue is that we know nothing of its life history traits.

25

Describe the common practice of fisheries once a certain species is "fished out".

Fisheries start to catch less desirable fish over the common ones.
Start exploiting deeper living species.
However, the issue is we know nothing of their population sizes, how sustainable they are or on life history traits.

26

What are the different uses of fish?

Food - fresh or frozen
Non-food purposes:
- cosmetics
- feeding livestock
Cash

27

What is the majority of fish used for?

Feeding people.

28

Fish can be used for straight up cash, what type of countries would do this?

Major exploit in developing countries.

29

What is the reason that Canada support fish research?

We are a major exporter of fish globally. Huge source of jobs.

30

Sometimes, it is easy to scientifically determine how many fish to keep constant catch rates but, ________ pressures trump this.

Economic