Phylogeny and diversity - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Phylogeny and diversity - Part 2 Deck (49):
1

Draw the simplified tree of gnathostomes including the key traits of each group.

(mixini --> true vertebrae --> Petromyzontiformes) --> jaws, paired fins --> Placoderms, Chondricthyes --> Operculum, branchiostegal rays --> Acanthodii --> lepidotrichia, pleural ribs --> Actinopterygii --> true enamel on teeth, lobed fins --> Actinistia --> Choana --> Dipnomorpha --> folded tooth enamel --> Osteolepimorha --> tetrapoda

Also, indicate which are the osteichthyes and which are the sarcopterygii

2

Describe the acanthodii.

Very speciose group.
Now extinct gnathostomes.
Two pump system
May have outcompeted placoderms
Predominant in oceans for a while.

3

What is a dipnomorpha?

Lungfish

4

What is an osteolepimorpha?

Transitional, may not be a fish, important fish-tetrapod fossil

5

Actinistia includes what kind of extant fish?

Coelocanth

6

Where did jaws come from?

First 2 gill arches of agnathans.

7

What could have been the selective advantage of half a jaw?

Increase in size of the first gill arch may have aided in respiration.
Can open and close the mouth for better respiration.
A stronger proto-mouth could have aided in filter-feeding.

8

What was the purpose of the second arch?

Hyoid arch forming part of the jaw suspension.

9

What was the first arch?

mandibular arch

10

What were the purposes of the first two arches when becoming jaws?

Arches 1 and 2 got bigger for respiration with more muscles then got to feeding.
1st arch is main jaw and the second arch is for suspension

11

Tetrapods don't have gill arches. What did they become?

Middle ear bones.

12

What was the split early on from Osteichthyes?
When did it happen?

Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii
Early on in Devonian (around 400 mya)

13

What are the most likely ancestors to all actinopterygians?

Paleonoiscids

14

Describe chondrosteii.

Early actinpterygii
Skeleton mostly cartilage
extant species include paddlefish and sturgeon

15

Describe holosteii

More of a bony skeleton
Most of the actinopterygians are this.

16

Describe teleosts.

Most diverse group of fishes.
Majority of fish species.
Modern bony fishes.
Specialized.

17

Draw a basic graph including osteichthyes, sarcopterygii, tetrapods, actinopterygii, holosteii, chondrosteii, teleosteii and palaeoniscids

refer to notes

18

What are neopterygii?

Actinopterigian fish.
Stands for new fin.
These fish had more flexible fins, more rays, more lepidotrichia, more mobile.
Gave mobility and maneuverability leading to diversification

19

What is one way to reconstruct fossil phylogeny?

Scales

20

a lot of the early work on fish phylogeny was driven by discovering fossilized _____ in different strata

scales

21

What are the 5 kinds of scales?

Placoid, ganoid, cosmoid, cycloid, ctenoid

22

Describe placoid scales.

Sharks have this.
Smooth one way, sandpaper the other way.
Do not grow.
Can be replaced
Related to teeth.
Cannot be used for aging

23

Describe cosmoid scales.

Found in sarcopterygians.
Grow with fish
have some blood flow
sturdy and thick, not flexible.

24

Describe ganoid scales.

Found in sturgeon
Very hard, bony armour
Modified cosmoid
good protection
grow with fish, hard and good for protection
bad for flexibility

25

Describe cycloid and ctenoid.

Teleosts have these
provide less protection
more flexible and provide mobility

26

What are the 6 characters that make a teleost, a teleost?

1 - Reduced or missing scales.
2 - Two pump respiratory system
3 - Modified swim bladder
4 - Flexible jaws
5 - Homocercal tail
6 - Specialized fins

27

What is the evolutionary advantage of reduced or missing scales?

Lost ganoid for cycloid/ctenoid.
More mobility alloted.
Can now go into more environments.
Can catch prey faster and better avoid predators.

28

What is the evolutionary advantage of the two pump respiratory system?

Breathing without moving.
Can now hide of be stationary.

29

What is the evolutionary advantage of a modified swimbladder?

Better buoyancy control.

30

What is the evolutionary advantage of flexible jaws?

Flexibility in feeding.
Prey specialization.
Flexibility in jaws and flexibility among teleosts jaws.

31

What is the evolutionary advantage of a homocercal (symmetrical) tail?

Allows more powerful swimming.
More maneuverability.
Muscles can better attach for swimming.

32

What is the evolutionary advantage of specialized fins?

Modifications for feeding (angler), reproduction, holding onto substrate (gobies), etc.

33

What are the major teleost groups?

(OECOE)
osteoglossomorpha
Elopomorpha
Clupeomorpha
Euteleostei
Ostariophysi

34

What is a basic character for osteoglossomorpha?

bony tongue

35

What is an example species from elopomorpha?

Eels

36

What are examples of clupeomorphs?

Shad and cod

37

What is the most speciose group of teleosts?

Ostariphysi - catfishes and cyprinids

38

What are euteleosts? Example species?

True teleosts.
PErch, drum, goby

39

Briefly describe: ammocoete

Larval form of lamprey
similar to ancestral chordates.

40

What is the larval form of Elopomorphs?

Leptocephalus.

41

Briefly describe: Leptocephalus.

Larval form of elopomorphs.
Very fin without gills.
oxygen exchange through skin
almost all muscle to be able to swim large distances from center of ocean to coast.

42

Elasmobranchii and chondrostei have a ______, an accessory respiratory structure.

Spiracle

43

Briefly describe: Spiracle

Acessory respiratory structure of Elasmobranchs and condrosteii.
Extra hole to get water over the gills.

44

Cleupeiformes have what key things?

Auditory bullae, recessus lateralis.

45

Briefly describe: auditory bullae.

(Clupeiformes)
Small bubble of gas next to the ear for better hearing.
High frequency hearing.

46

Briefly describe: recessus lateralis

(Clupeiformes)
Part of the lateral line next to the auditory bullae.
Helps fish detect sounds with lateral line

47

What is the group that consists of catfishes and minnows?

Ostariphysi

48

Briefly describe: Weberian ossicles.

Modified bounds that function similarly to an eardrum and function in higher frequency hearing
Found in Ostariphysi

49

Briefly describe: Shreckstoff

Fright substance that is released when a minnow is bit to cause others to run away
Found in Ostariophysi