Fisheries and conservation - Part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fisheries and conservation - Part 3 Deck (41)
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1

Rank, by selectivity, the different fishing techniques.

Trawling
Purse seines
Longlines
Gillnetting
Harpooning/angling

2

Describe trawling

Drag big net behind the boat for a large distance catching most every thing.
Least selective.

3

What are the benefits of trawling?

Easy, catches a lot, good economically

4

What can be regulated for trawling?

Mesh size.
Larger size will allow smaller fish and babies through.

5

What are the issues with trawling?

Least selective.
Destructive to habitat, specifically deep-water trawling. (coral reefs and seagrass beds)

6

How are purse seines more selective than trawling?

Only set when the target fish is found.
Selectively target fish species they catch.
Modified to avoid dolphin catching.

7

Describe longlines.

Long lines of hooks, km or more long, can be baited.
Come back to collect after a period of fishing.

8

How are longlines selective?

Primarily target larger, predatory fish.
Will catch any species large and hungry enough to bite hook.
Not selective in terms of species but, size and predatory selective.

9

How has bycatch changed the way longlines operate?

Modified to go deeper and changed to hooks to prevent non-fish bycatch.

10

What is a major issue to longlines?

By the time you come back, fish are already dead.
Can get lost and continually fish for a long time.

11

Describe gill nets.

Nets that catch fish by the gills.
Allow fish heads to go through the net but not the body. Fish will then try to swim back but get net caught in operculum.
Left then, harvested later.

12

How is gillnetting selective?

Size selective.
Large headed fish and baby fish will not be caught.
Size selective but not species selective.

13

Describe the controversy with longlines and gill nets.

These can be lost during a storm or due to a satellite issue.
They can keep killing fish and other animals for years.

14

What are the regulations for gillnetting and longlines?

Pretty much unregulated and heavily used.
Only regulation is on mesh size.

15

How can harpooning and angling be used commercially?

They have very little bycatch (if at all) and are the most sustainable.
However, they both arent particularly efficient and are only worthwhile is the fish is large enough.

16

As we overfish, we have a tendency to fish _____ the _____ _____.

down the food chain

17

Describe a redsnapper and a whitefish.

Anything semi red is called a redsnapper
Anything semi white is called a whitefish

18

Aquaculture.
What do most big fish eat?
What happens after fish eat?

1 - Other fish
2 - Fish poop

19

In aquaculture, _______ systems may be okay but oceanic ___ ____ are particularly bad.

Inland
Net pens

20

Why doesn't aquaculture solve the fishing problem in some instances.

Have to feed the fish in the farm with other fish.

21

Fish _____ is a large issue in regulation of fish farms.

waste

22

Why is an inland system better than an oceanic system in terms of wastes?

Can treat inland wastes.
If the farm is in oceanic waters, just hope it washes away.

23

What are the different aquaculture set-ups?

Net pens
Ponds
Raceway
Recirculation

24

What are the benefits of net pens?

No water chemistry issues.
Can have high fish densities
Can keep in bay for high accessibility
Relatively inexpensive

25

What are the problems with net pens?

Fish density is high so, if not placed correctly, can get waste buildup
Habitat can get degraded due to wastes
Fish escape can occur whereby the fish outcompete the native ones (ex: Atlantic and Pacific salmon)
Diseases

26

Describe the benefits of a pond.

Inland system
Water comes from ocean so water chemistry is generally not an issue

27

What are the problems with ponds?

Generally near shore so can have issues with wastes and can be devastating to coastal environments
- i.e. may need to build near the coast and destroy estuary or forest buffer strip
- can have buildup of wastes in coastal areas, degrading them

28

What are the benefits to recirculation systems?

Waste problem eliminated
Less environmental damage
Doesnt need to be near an ocean or coastal areas

29

What are the problems with recirculation systems?

Expensive for maintenance
Have to carefully monitor water chemistry
Fewer fish
Still might not take care of overfishing issue

30

What is the best way to get around the overfishing issue with aquaculture?

Raising vegetarian fish like Tilapia.