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Flashcards in For 16/9 ER Deck (9)
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- Inaudible high-frequency sound waves used to show image of foetus.
- Throughout pregnancy.
-Confirms pregnancy, number, abnormalities, gender, anatomy, defects, foetus position.
- Cannot diagnose all abnormalities.



- A needle is inserted trhough abs into amnion cavity to collect amniotic fluid. Cells then analysed.
- 16-20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Cells seen for biochemical, chromosome, and chromosome number defects.
- Risk of infection, miscarriage, or damage to baby.


CVS (Chorionic Villus Sampling)

- Obtains specimen of foetal cells from chorion.
- 9-19 weeks of pregnancy.
- Cells seen for biochemical, chromosome, and chromosome number defects.
- 2% chance of miscarriage and cannot detect spina bifida.


Maternal Blood Test

- Screening test used to identify if there is a high chance of baby having disorder.
- From 10 weeks of gestation.
- Screening for chromosome mutation (down, Edward's, Turner, Patau syndromes).
- Cannot fully determine if child has disorder.



- Procedure done to record electrical changes of the heart.
- During labour and birth.
- Used to detect if baby is undergoing stress.
- May not pick up arrhythmia.



- Stethoscope; used to listen to foetus heartbeat. Scope looks directly at foetus through a telescope-like instrument.
- 18-22 weeks of preg.
- Examines appearance of foetus, defects, abnormalities.
- Risky and difficult, only done if an indication of abnormalities has been done.


Foetal Blood Sampling

- Blood taken from umbilical cord or foetal blood vessel.
- 18 weeks pregnancy and up.
- Diagnoses chromosomal abnormalities, anaemia, oxygenation, infections to medications.
- 1-2% chance of miscarriage, infection risk, and premature amniotic sac rupture.


Biochemical Analysis

- Assessment of marker proteins in the blood.
- 11-14 weeks preg.
- Used to diagnose PKU or spina bifida.


DNA Probe

- Based on recombinant DNA tech. If gene is normal probe will join up and show the normal gene. If gene is abnormal, probe will not show up.
- Used to detect genetic diseases such as DMD, and thalassemia.