- Aragon Traditionally concerned with French ambitions on Northern Frontier.
- F directs most policy for Castile and Aragon.
- I concerned with crusade, after Granada- F aims to fulfil Aragon’s concerns.
- Rivalry over claims to Canary Islands.
- Portugal give up claim in TREATY OF ALCAÇOVAS 1479.
- Canaries conquered by Castile.
- I & F daughter Isabella married Prince Alfonso (heir to Portugal), he died so she married his brother King Emmanuel.
- Isabella died 1481, so Emmanuel married her sister Maria.
- Strategic Importance (between France and Spain).
- F invades in 1512, Navarre becomes part of kingdom of Castile.
- Navarre allowed to remain fairly independent.
- In past policy, Castile: Allies, Aragon: Opposition (France)
- France focused on invading Italy.
- French give up Cerdagne and Roussillon in TREATY OF BARCELONA 1493.
Fight for Naples
French invasion of Naples in 1494 renewed Spanish/French conflict.
-Both wanted Naples, current ruler F illegitimate cousin - Ferrante.
- French occupy Naples in 1495.
1495: Spain joins Holy League (Anti French) with HRE Maximilian, Papal States and Other Italian States.
- French king overextends himself on march South, Retreats.
Spanish army commanded by Gonzalo De Córdoba. New weaponry e.g. pikemen, and new formations - later known as Tercio formation.
1503: Gonzalo 2 victories against French.
1504: France recognise Spanish control over Naples, it becomes part of Kingdom of Aragon.
-Aragonese policies, F concerned about Turks expanding.
1479-80: Spain assisted Knights Hospitallers when Rhodes besieged by Turks.
1481: Spain helps Naples against Turkish Invasion.
1501: Córdoba’s force helps Venice regain Castle of St. George.
- Interest in Gold, Ivory and Slaves.
- Isabella sent Privateering Ships to intercept Portuguese on their way home and steal the goods.
1479: I forced to accept Portugal’s monopoly in fishing and trade on Western Coast.
1490’s: Crusades on Northern Coast, Spain took various cities e.g. Bougie and Tripoli.
- New Artillery, Gunpowder Weaponry.
- Employed specialists from France and Germany to bring new weapons.
- Pikes and Missile weapons used in Formations.
- Daughter Isabella and King of Portugal.
- 1496: Son of HRE marries F daughter Joanna.
- F heir John marries Margaret (Daughter of HRE).
- TREATY OF MEDINA DEL CAMPO: Catherine of Aragon marries Arthur and then HVII other son Henry.
- F’s 2nd marriage to Germaine of Foix (LXII niece)
1st European monarchs to use them, apart from Ppapal States.
-1490’s, Spain has resident Ambassadors in: England, Papal States, Germany, Burgundy & Venice.
-Gives Spain insider information