Forensic Toxicology Flashcards Preview

Analytical Chemistry > Forensic Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Forensic Toxicology Deck (22):
1

What is Toxicology

study of adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms, organ systems, individual organs, tissue and cells.

study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning.

2

what are the toxic compound groups

- Gases
- Volatile organic compounds
- Drugs
- Metals
- Pesticides and persistent organic pollutants
- Anions

3

who was the founder of toxicology?

Paracelsus was the founder of toxicology.

4

Why is dose important?

Sensitive and selective methods are necessary to establish toxic doses

5

Dose (e.g. mg/kg body weight)

defines as the amount of a substance added at a certain time. perceive as the total amount of a poison administered.

6

dose rate (e.g. mg/kg body weight a day)

Amount of a substance administered to an organism during a defined time span

7

exposure dose

does in soil water air food

8

ingested dose

dose or dose rate

9

absorbed dose

amount in body e.g in blood

10

dose in tissue

dose at tissue level e.g liver

11

biologically effective dose

concentration of compound at target molecule

12

what are the applied toxicology

- Forensic toxicology
- Occupation – risk at work
- Clinical- toxic induced diseases
- Developmental- induced malformations in embryos or foetuses
- environmental

13

descriptive toxicology

identify and describe the toxicological profilings (carcinogenic, mutagenic, neurotoxic)

14

Mechanistic toxicology

identify and describe how the toxic compounds exert their toxic effects

15

regulatory toxicology

risk assessment and risk management, determination of risk based on descriptive and mechanistic toxicology to develop safety regulations

16

what is forensic toxicology

detection and measurement of xenobiotics in biological or other specimens

17

forensic toxicology

- when toxicological and analytical chemical techniques and methods are applied in legal context

main purpose- to verify a crime could be behind an acute/chronic poisoning

(murder by poison, illegal drugs at workplace, doping, alcohol, chemical spills)

18

clinical toxicology

- when toxicological and analytical chemical techniques and methods are applied to identify compound responsible for an acute/chronic poisoning
main purpose to keep a poisoned person alive

(suicide, attempted suicide, unintended poisoning, accidental acute/chronic poisoning)

19

Accidental poisonings

- results from an accident, error, carelessness or an unexpected situation in the working environment
- house accidents
- due to medical or paramedical treatment ( e.g. contaminant)

20

experimental poisonings

self medication or experimentation

21

intentional poisoning

intoxicate on purpose

22

strychnine

-from strychnos nuxvomica tree
- painful death from suffocation
- symptoms 10-20 mins after
- used as athletic performance enhancer and recreational stimulant in the late 19th century and early 20th century