Fractures: Healing and Complications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fractures: Healing and Complications Deck (50):
1

what is needed to asses traumatic bone lesions

at least 2 orthogonal radiogrphs

include areas above an below joint

more than one view 

2

things that can be confused with fractures

nutrient foramen

normal physes

sesamoid bones

3

what dis

fragmented/multipartite palmar sesamods

#2 and 7 most commonly affected

4

how to evaluate a fracture in practice

how many bones are fractured

have soft tissues been damaged too

is joint involved

how bad is the damage

should you try and fix this

5

T/F you may not be able to determine open vs. closed radiographically

True

6

geographic types of fractures

 

transverse

oblique

spiral 

comminuted

incomplete

7

should you try and fix this?

Why the f*ck not

8

what type of fracture is this?

transverse

9

what type of fracture is this

oblique

10

what type of fracture is this?

spiral

11

what type of fracutre is this

incomplete

12

what type of fracture is this

comminuted

13

salter harris

physeal fracture classification system

applys only to skeletally immature patients

14

salter haris grade increases as _________ increases

chance of physeal growth perturbation increases

15

chance of secondary growth anomally musch higher with _______

type V salter harris fracture

16

what type of fracture is this

Salter Harris type 1

17

what type of fracture is this

salter harris type 2

18

what type of fracture is this

salter harris type 3

19

what type of fracture is this

salter harris type 4

20

when do you see pathologic fractures

bones weakened by disease

fractures occur secondary to an event that would not normally lead to a fracture; jumping off the bed 

21

luxation

dislocation of an anatomic part

22

subluxation

partial dislocation of an anatomic part 

may require stress views to demonstrate extent of instability

23

whats your diagnosis

subluxation

24

primary healing

rigid fixation 

direct bone contact - minimal fracture gap

radiographically - no callus formation, progressive disappearance of fracture line

25

T/F primary healing of fractures in common in vet med

False

26

secondary healing

motion or distraction of fragments

callus formation - fibrocartilage stabilizes fracture, ossification of callus then bony union

27

size of callus depends on 

fracture type/width

stability

vascularity

28

T/F callus will diminish as stability returns

True

Wolffls law

29

how many days post fracture do you see early callus formation

10-20 days

not bridging yet

30

what is seen 30 days post fracture in secondary bone healing

fracture line disappearing

callus bridging

31

T/F after 3 months the callus is remodeled, the fracture line is gone and there is re-establishing of cortex an medullary cavity

True

32

normal callus should be _________ and ________

normal callus should be smooth and nonagressive (inactive)

33

factors that influence fracture healing

vascular integrity

fracture location

extent of fracture

degree of motion

34

perfusion diminishes as soft tissue injury decreases/increases

increases

35

fractures located where tend to heal slowly and have a high complication rate in toy breeds

distal antebrachium 

36

delayed union

fracture has not healed in the time expected 

37

nonunion

all fracture healing has stopped and fragments have not united

38

malunions can predispose the animal to

DJD

39

whats your diagnosis

nonunion 

fracture ends are sclerotic

40

osteomylitis

infection of the bone 

hematogenous bacterial osteomyelitis is rare, usually the result of a wound or fracture

41

T/F osteomyelitis is characterized as an aggressive bone lesion

True

not a normal callus, irregular periosteal reaction is a key finding

42

sequestrum 

infected devitalized bone fragment separated from parent bone

often a draining tract

43

whats your diagnosis

sequestrum

44

physeal growth abnormalities are typically a result of

Salter Harris type V injury 

most common in antebrachium, young animals

45

what is a result of Type V fracture to the distal ulnar physis

insufficient ulnar growth

ulnar retardation leads to radius being "trapped" 

46

insufficient ulnar growth results in

humeroulnar subluxation

bowed radius

valgus of manus

47

T/F ulnar ostectomy will correct humeroulnar subluxation

True - if its early

48

T/F radial closure is more common than ulnar closure

False

49

radial closure results in 

humeroradial subluxation - ulna pushed humerus away from radiu

+/- varus manus

50