Diaphragm and Thoracic Wall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diaphragm and Thoracic Wall Deck (35):
1

diaphragm anatomy

muscuotendinous partion betwee thorax and abdomen 

components: tendinous center, 2 crura

2

What is indicated by the arrow

crura attached to ventral aspect of L3 and L4 

creates indistinct cortex→can be confused with an agressive lesion

can be confirmed as normal as CT

3

what are the 3 openings (hiatus, foramen) 

aorta (aortic hiatus) 

esophagus (esophageal hiatus) 

caudal vena cava (cadaul vena cava foramen)

4

T/F the diaphragm can be a potential communication between the thorax and abdomen

True

5

which side of the diaphragm can be seen on radiographs 

thoracic side 

6

What is indicated by red circle 

a portion of the abdominal side of the diaphragm that can be seen if it touches something of different opacity, often the falciform ligament 

7

why is the adbominal side not seen on radiographs

it is silhouetting with the liver  

8

the dependent crus is usually more cranial/caudal

cranial

9

the CVC attach to a blends with which crus 

right

10

name the view 

left - right lateral

right lateral (CVC blends with the dependent (right) crus)

11

what is the difference in the appearance of the diaphragm in DV and VD views 

VD - may detect 1,2, or 3 dome shaped structures

DV - usually only 1 

Mick Mouse has VD, ask Minnie how he got it

12

what is the most common cause of diaphragmatic hernias

trauma 

13

T/F diaphragmatic hernias may not result in clinical signs

True

14

what additional test may be needed to diagnose a diaphragmatic hernia 

ultrasound

barium study

15

what should be done if pleural fluid is present 

thoracocentesis and repeat 

therapeutic and diagnostic 

16

what are some helpful radiographic signs with traumatic diaphragmatic hernias 

border effacement of diaphragm 

adbominal viscera in pleural space 

displacement of adbominal structures 

17

describe the abnormalty seen here

pyloris is displaced cranially into the thorax - indicates diaphragmatic hernia

18

radiograph of a dog HBC, where is the leson?

not much wrong 

WNL

19

describe the lesion

stomach displaced into left hemithorax

20

describe the radiograph of this dog that was HBC

increased heterogeneous opacity in thorax

border effeacement of diaphragm 

DDx: diaphragmatic hernia, hemothorax, collapsed lung 

21

peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH)

 

abdominal viscera herniates through a congenital hiatus 

can be associated with fewer than normal sternebrae

usually incidental finding 

22

what can be seen with PPDH on radiographs

round, enlarged, cardiac silhouette 

heterogenous opacity if gas or large amount of fat present 

silhouette between heart and diaphragm 

23

24

what is a hiatal hernia

portion of fundus herniated through esophageal hiatus 

25

2 types of hiatal hernia 

sliding (more common)

paraesophageal 

26

what view can hiatal hernias be visualized in 

left lateral

27

T/F hiatal hernias often manifest in patients with partial upper airway obstruction

True 

brachycephalic breeds 

28

T/F ribs are often ignored

True

many rib lesions missed

29

T/F costal cartilages are commonly mineralized, even in young dogs 

True

can be confused with tumors, infection, or lung nodules 

30

skin nodules can appear as...

lung nodules

may need additional views

31

what is T-L Transitional Anomaly 

T13 has characterisitcs of L1 or vice versa

only significant as a landmark for surgery or aspiration 

32

T/F rib fractures are usually clinically significant and can be spontaneous in cats 

False

rarely clinically significant and can be spontaneous in cats 

33

where is the thoracic wall mass located 

extraplural

34

where is the thoracic wall mass located 

intrapulmonary 

35

properties of rib tumors 

pleural effusion typically present 

usually mesenchymal - OSA vs. CSA

caudal ribs 

iceberg effect-little seen externally, most of the mass in the thoracic cavity