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Flashcards in Small Bowel Deck (44):
1

causes of vomitting

 

pyloric outflow obstruction

bowel obstruction

gastroenteritis

biochemical alteraltions

2

what is the most common reason abdominal radiographs are made

suspected foreign body or obstruction

3

normal diameter in canine

roughly the height of L2 

2x width of a rib

4

normal diameter in cats

roughly 2x height of central part of L4

12 mm

5

cats usually have less/more gas

less

6

what cant be assessed radiographically

motility

transit time

mucosal margins

character of wall

7

whats your diagnosis

normal canine radiographs

8

whats your diagnosis

normal feline abdomen

9

indications for barium studies

persistent vomiting - unknown cause

inconclusive radiographs

U/S not available

10

upper GI contraindications 

obstruction

ingesta in stomach or bowel

perforation

prior medications slowing GI function

subsequent endoscopy of US

11

when should aqueous G.I media be used

perforation suspected

barium causes peritonitis

12

upper G.I procedure

NPO 12-25 hr

enema

no meds

no sedatives

use stomach tube

use enough barium

13

radiographic views needed

survey

immediately - right lat, left lat, VD, DV

15-30 min - right lat, VD

30-60 min - right lat, VD

hourly until barium in colon

14

normal transit times

15 min: barium in duodenum

30 min: jejunum well filled

1-2 hrs: stomach empty

6 hours jejunum empty

15

whats your diagnosis

normal variant

 "string of pearls" in feline

16

whats your diagnosis

normal varient

canine pseudoulcers - peyers patches

17

what dis?

fimbriation

18

how are abnormalities confirmed

detect it in the same place over time

19

what is ileus

intestinal obstruction

20

types of ileus 

mechanical - partial or complete

paralytic/functional - adynamic

21

causes of paralytic ileus

electrolyte imbalance

ischemia

peritonitis

shock'toxin

narcotics

medical tx, surgery is contraindicated 

22

23

causes of mechanical ileus

foreign body

tumor

scarring/ adhesions

hernia

volvulus

24

hallmark of bowel obstruction

enlarged bowel

25

mechanical vs paralytic ileus

mechanical - 2 populations of bowel (normal and enlarged), greater enlargement leads to stacking, fluid and gas in lumen

paralytic - enlargement (not as much as mechanical), typically just gas in lumen

26

whats your diagnosis

paralytic ileus (peritonitis)

27

whats your diagnosis

paralytic ileus: duodenum

"sentinel loop sign" - associated with pancreatitis

28

whats your diagnosis

Paralytic ileus - endotoxemia secondary to GDV

29

what is meant by "two populations"

presence of some small bowel segments that are normal in diameter and others that are significantly larger (2-3x)

30

whats your diagnosis

mechanical ileus - foreign material in S. I.

31

whats your diagnosis

mechanical ileus - stacking

32

what dis?

gravel sign

collection of S.I. foreign material due to chronic partial obstruction

33

classic appearance of linear foreign body

bunching

plication

comma or cresent shaped gas bubbles

34

where should you always check if you suspect linear foreign body

under the tongue - becomes anchored, esp cats

dog: commonly anchored in pylorus

35

whats your diagnosis

linear foreign body

36

linear foreign body detected or not detected

detected

37

T/F there are usually no radiographic signs of infiltrative disease

true

U/S more sensitive but not specific - need biopsy

38

radiographic signs associated with neoplasia

"apple core sign"

"thumb printing"

39

diseases associated with thumb printing

lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis

parvo

lymphoma

eosinophilic infiltration

40

what dis?

thumbprinting - infiltrative bowel disease

41

whats your diagnosis?

"apple core" sign - infiltrative bowel disease

 

42

DDx thickened wall (loss of layers)

neoplasia

severe enteritis

cats - solitary FIP granuloma

43

whats your diagnosis

intestinal wall thickening - most likely neoplasia

44

whats your diagnosis

intusussusception