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Flashcards in Lower Urinary Tract Deck (44):
1

LUT disease can be ________ or __________

obstructive or non-obstructive

2

prioritzed DDx of non-obstructive LUT in dogs

UTI

urolithiasis +/- infection

neoplasm

 

3

prioritzed DDx of non-obstructive LUT in cats

idiopathic cystitis

urothlithiasis

 

4

when is imaging indicated

calculus, obstruction or palpated mass

signs dont resolve

hematuria

 

5

bladder size depends on 

how much urine is present

6

too big?

cant base decision totally on rads

palpate bladder, can catheter be passed

7

what is the trigone

small area there ureters and urethra open

8

wall thickness and mucosal surface can/cannot be assessed on survey radiographs

cannot

9

T/F urethra is typically not seen in dogs but often seen in cats

True

seen in cats as a linear opacity between the bladder neck and pubis

10

why take a "butt shot" 

conventional lateral views are not adequate for complete examination of male canine urethra

11

large segment in the pelvis is associated with_______

incontinence

12

bladder abnormalities detected in survey radiographs

calculi

absent bladder

abnormal gas

13

which types of cystic calculi are NOT radiopaque

cystine

urate

"I can't C U"

14

bladder detected or not detected

not detected - absent bladder

15

whats your diagnosis

iatrogenic gas 

EtDx: cysto, catheter

16

whats your diagnosis

pathologic gas

gas not in the center of the bladder - in the wall

usually due to glucose fermentation (diabetics)

17

many bladder lesions require _______ for detection

cystography

18

types of cystography

positive contrast

negative contrast

double contrast

19

UB contrast indications

chronic or recurring LUT disease

assess bladder integrity

identify bladder location - perineal hernia, displaced bladder

non-opaque calculi

20

advantages of postive contrast cystography

detect bladder rupture

confirm location of UB

space occupying luminal mass

urachal diverticulum

21

disadvantages of postive contrast cystography

can hide small lesions

dilute contrast medium to reduce hiding lesions

can do double-contrast study after positive

22

whats your diagnosis

urachal remnant

wall irregularity

calculi

23

whats your diagnosis

bladder rupture

24

whats your diagnosis

perineal hernia

25

whats your diagnosis

filling defect

26

how can you determine cause of filling defect

central in all views - likely a free object: stone, clot

pheripheral in at least one view - likely a wall lesions, some stones will adhere to the wall

27

negative contrast cystography can be used to 

evaluate ectopic ureters - used with EU

28

risk associated with negaitve contrast cystography

fatal air embolism -esp. cats!

use CO2 to minimize risk, or don't do at all

29

WTF happened here

air embolism

30

characteristics of air bubbles on double contrast study

circular, well circumscribed margins

located at periphery

create honeycomb appearance

may be present in different numbers on different views

31

whats your diagnosis

non-opaque calculi

32

whats your diagnosis

ventral in all 3 views

DDx: neoplasia, cystitis

33

urethral abnormalities seen on survey radiographs

calculi

34

main indication for urethrogram 

detect urethral obstructions or urethral rupture

35

which part of the urethra normally the most narrow 

prostatic 

36

conditions diagnosed using urethrogran

rupture

stricture

tumors

37

whats your diagnosis

urethral rupture

38

whats your diagnosis

urethral tumor

39

complications of contrast procedures in LUT 

trauma from improper catherterization

air embolus

knotted or broken urinary catheters

40

what changes are seen with cystitis

bladder wall is thick and irregular

typically at apex, but diffuse thickening is common

41

whats your diagnosis

cystitis - cranioventral wall thickening

 

42

whats your diagnosis

urinary bladder uroliths

43

what is the most common uriniary bladder tumor

transitional cell carcinoma

44

TCC detected or not detected

detected