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What are the main concerns of personality researchers?

- Human nature
- Organisation of "bits" of people
-- goals, moods etc
- How you are perceived by others
- Psychology


What was Freud's structural model?

- Id
-- the pleasure seeker
- Ego
-- the decider, development of self-awareness
- Superego
-- extreme internalionsation of good and bad


What was Freud's topographical model?

- Conscious
--> everything you are conscious of right now
- Pre-consciousness
--> something you can access fairly easily and bring to consciousness
- Unconscious
--> motivated, wants to control what is in the consicousness


What does Freud say about the information we report ourselves?

- because the unconsciousness is MOTIVATED to control what is in the consciousness
= reports/ beliefs about out own 'threatening' behaviours are sometimes wrong
= validity of self-report


What are the key concepts of personality?

1. Energy
2. Anxiety - root of the problem
3. Defence mechanism


What does Freud say about energy being one of the key concepts of personality?

- can only be expressed, blocked, delayed or modified
- Stems from instincts
--> inherited instincts


What are instincts?

- state of excitement (tension)
- located at various centers in the body
According to one's stage of development


What are some inherited instincts?

1. Life instinct (Eros energy)
- Ego
--> self-preservation
- Sexual (libido energy)
--> species preservation aim
2. Death instinct (Thanatos energy)
- the aim of all life is death


According to Freud, what is the root of the problem that directs a person's personality?

- Trauma from when instinct is expressed and is harmful to self
= anxiety --> reminds them of previous trauma
- all this can be unconsciously taking place


What is the primary defence mechanism?



What are the 2 different forms of repression?

1. Primary repression
- unwanted material turned away before reaching awareness
- leaks into consciousness in disguised ways
2. After-expulsion
- unwanted material notices in consciousness


What are highly adaptive defence mechanisms?

- Altruism
- Sublimation


What is altruism like as a defence mechanism?

- seeking pleasure from giving to others what people would themselves like to receive
- especially the comfort of security


What is sublimation?

- Defence mechanism
-Satisfying an impulse with a socially acceptable object
- eg sports w/ aggression


What are some mental inhibiting defence mechanisms?

- Displacement
- Reaction formation


Describe displacement as a defence mechanism

- love or other emotions displace to someone who is "like mum"


What is reaction formation?

- Defence mechanism
- saying/ expression the opposite of what they want to say impulsively


What are some disavowal defence mechanisms?

- Denial
- Projection
- Rationalisation


What is projection?

- defence mechanism
- something about oneself is threatening to oneself
- Misattributing feelings onto others


What is rationalisation as a defence mechanism?

- finding another way to deal with a fact
- an earthquake? = God's will


What is TMT?

Terror management theory
- any sort of defensive behaviour is stems from being aware of/ fear of death
- Scrooge Effect
--> Being aware of our own death = changes behaviour


What is a method for dealing with "terror" of mortality?

- believe in something that can continue without you
= political movements
= cultural world views


What support the TMT theory?

- people donated more money when asked for outside a grave yard
= reminded of death - no point of money
= BUT charity still needs to be relevant to their cultural world views


What are the psycho'sexual' development stages?

1. Oral
- Birth --> 1
- early oral: sucking, swallowing
- late oral: biting, chewing
2. Anal
- 1 --> 3
- Early anal: Pleasure from pooping
- Late anal: Pleasure from holding poop
3. Phallic
- 3 --> 5
- Beginning of masturbation
- oedipus complex
4. Latency
- 6 --> 12
- sexual urges remain repressed
- energy poured into other asexual pursuits = school etc
- beginning of puberty
5. Genital


What is different about Erkson's psychosocial stage of development to Freud's psychosexual stages?

- considers that the stages don't stop after a certain age and continues into adulthood + old age


What is important about identity status during adolescence?

- is the specific time to create their identity
- confronting them/ or not can = certain fixations


How does the personality develop according to Freud?

- as they move through the psychosexual stages social rewards/ punishments as they express their instincts result in fixations
- an interplay between the expression + inhibitions of instincts


What is the personality formula?

f(p x e)
P = function( person x environment)
- ultimately down to ego


What causes someone to develop to develop a resilient personality?

- when ego can satisfy the needs of the id, superego and reality


What causes someone to develop an over-controlled personality?

- superego too strong
- rigidly judgemental


What are the 2 different oral characteristics?

1. Oral incorporative: Over-indulged
- optimistic, Gullible, "swallow anything"
2. Oral Aggressive: Under-indulged
- Pessimistic, suspicious, "biting remarks"


What is the anal triad; Haslam, 2011?

adult traits that tells us they have an anal fixation:
- orderliness
- obstinacy
- Parsimony/ miserliness


What are the different anal fixation personalities?

1. Anal retentive
- 'rigid' + over-controlled
- stingy + perfectionist + risk-averse
2. Anal expulsive
- 'sadistic' + under-controlled
- messiness, vagueness, disorganise, rebellious


What is ego culture?

- one person's instinct expression can trigger other anxieties
- people therefore attempt to control other's instinct expressions thereby causing trauma
- society codifies such processes


What are the different forms of altruism?

- Pseudoaltruism
- Psychotic altruism
- Protoaltruism
- Generative altruism
- Conflicted altruism


What is pseudoaltruism?

- being nice because you "should be" nice
- driven by "scary" feelings = envy/ inadequacy


What is psychotic altruism?

anxieties promoting neurotic (disorganised) self-perceptions of serving others


What is protoaltruism?

- instinctive, biological - parental nurturing


What is generative altruism?

- Non-defensive, taking pleasure in helping and/ or enjoying other's improved welfare


What is conflicted altruism?

Altruism which is both generative + a defence against anxiety


What is an issue with Freud?

- methodologically not good
--> small sample, subjectively analysed
- hard to test = unfalsified


What are some good things about freud despite all the criticism?

- Comprehensive since it covers a lot of thing
- Parsimonious = can explain a lot with a little
- enduring + generative - despite hostility