STUPID: CCC: Impulse control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in STUPID: CCC: Impulse control Deck (24)
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Describe the case of Phineas Gage

- large metal bar through his frontal cortex = orbitofrontal cortes
- good health but something was not quite righttttt
- impatient, indulging, gross profanity


What is psychosurgery

- severing or disabling part of the brain to treat mental illness
- LOBOTOMY = severing connection in the prefrontal cortex


Why was lobotomy so bad?

- results varied wayyy too much
--> some vegetables
--> some normal
--> some very impulsive + childlike


What marked the end of lobotomies as a treatment of mental illnesses?

Antipsychotic: Thorazine by GSK
- used to treat mainly SZ + Manic episodes


Other than dividing the brain into their functions, how else can the brain be mapped?

- Cytoarchitectonic devidion
= mapped based on where similar cell types are found


What is the function of the frontal cortex?

- makes you choose the harder thing to do as it would be the most beneficial in LT vs short + easy thing


What type of discounting was found in people with medial orbitofrontal damage to future rewards?

- Myopic discounting
- swapping for the shorter reward much quicker


What is the Iowa Gambling task?

- subject chooses from 4 decks of cards
- total of 100 choices from decks
- 2 decks large short-term gain, long-term gain


What were the findings in the Iowa gambling test for patients who sustained unilateral focal damage to the frontal lobes, who had frontal lesions and substance dependent subjects?

- unilateral focal damage = patient
- frontal lesion + substance dependent = impaired decision making in spite of obvious failures


What are the main types of substances being abused?

- alcohol
- Nicotine
- Opioid agnoists: Heroin, morphine
- Psychostimulants: cocaine, amphetamines
- Sedatives: Benxodiazepines
- Hallucinogens:
--> psychedelics - LSD, DMT
--> Dissociative: Ketamine, alcohol
--> Deliriants: atropine, scopolamine
- inhalents


What reasons are there for why people take drugs?

- experimentation
- pleasures
- medication
- peer pressure
** not the same as why they get addicted


What does addiction mean?

"bound" or devoted to


What are the 3 characteristics of drug addiction?

1. Compulsive drug seeking + taking
2. Inability to stop + high rates of relapse after cessation
3. Why drug become more wanted and less liked


Say 60% of people try illicit drugs, what % actually go on to develop a drug addiction?

5-10% develop drug addiction
- very few, who try, actually go on to develop a drug addiction


What are the general criteria for Substance Use disorder in the DSM-5?

- problematic pattern of use
- clinically significant impairment to their every day life
--> failure to fulfil major role obligations
- occurring within a 12 month period


How many symptoms need to be present if the substance use disorder is considered severe?

- severe = 6+
- Moderate = 4-5
- Mild = 2-3


Where is the primary reward circuitry located?

- found in the medial forebrain bundel
- Venreal tegmental area
--> mesolimbic dopamine pathway
- Nucleus accumbens
--> mesocortical pathway


What brain changes have been found in those who abuse alcohol and in polysubstance abusers?

- alcohol = reduced cortical gray matter volume
- polysubstance abusers = smaller volume of preforntal lobe


What has PET scans of glucose metabolism in control and cocaine abuser shown?

- Reduced orbitofrontal cortex function vs control


Cue-induced cocaine craving activated what parts of the brain?

ACC - anterior singulate cortex
OFC - orbitofrontal cortex


What did they find when methamphetamnie-dependent subjects were asked to perform a delay discounting task?

- more likely to quickly choose the smaller-immediate reward
- smaller in opioid-using + recovering subjects


Although LT drug use has shown to increase impulsive behaviour due to changes in preforntal cortex, what alternative avenue is there?

- particular individual "traits" of impulsivity may put people in a higher risk of drug taking?


What is the 5-choice serial reaction time task and how can this support the exploration of the impulsivity trait being a factor in drug abuse?

- rats told where reward is
- observed behaviour just before light/ after light
= high impulse animals take a lot more drug throughout
- so already impulsive and this just made them more vulnerable


What is the prefrontal model on addiction; Janrsch + Taylor, 1999?

- impulse control
- increased likelihood of taking drugs
- drug intake
- drug-induced structural and functional changes in prefrontal regions
- cycle beings again