Flashcards in Traits Deck (39)
Describe "personality types"
- diagnosing people as members (or not) of a particular category
- "He's Anal" = certain characteristics
- Encourages dichotomous + polarised thinking
--> can = overgeneralisation
What are Jung's interpretation of "types"?
- more on a scale
- more introverted
--> dominant concern w/ internal objects of knowledge - the self
- More extraverted
--> dominant concern with external objects of knowledge - the world
- both types use all four functions
What are Jung's 4 functions?
- 4 dynamic by which all people know themselves + the world
- Sensation = perception
- Thinking = logic
- Intuiting = via UCs
- Feeling = evaluation/ judgement
How did Myers + Briggs modify + extend "Jung's ideas?
- paired + contrasted so instead of saying you are THIS can say you Favour/ dominated scale
--> sensation vs intuition
--> thinking vs feeling
--> judging vs perception
- Mixed in
--> introversion vs extraversion
What is not so good about using "types" to understand personality?
- not reliable = suggests no invariability but people changeeee bro
- not valid
- not comprehensive = missing stuff: emotional stability
- Not independent = easy to be high on 'opposite'
What are traits?
= movement away from types
- dimensions of personality on which individuals vary
EG: everyone is introvert + extrovert to some extent
- depends on situation
- personal (internal) rather than situational
- stable vs transitory
- consistent vs inconsistent (across similar situations)
- can be relatively broad or narrow (across different situations)
- Potentially universal dimensions
What are Allport's non-common traits?
1. Cardinal traits
- single defining traits rarely chracterise individuals (like types)
2. Central traits
- what we mainly mean now
- mentioned in recommendation letters
3. Secondary traits
- like central but more specific to particular response
What is the lexical hypothesis?
- all aspects of human personality have already become recorded in the substance of language
= broad terms
What is factor analysis?
- principe statistical method of most trait theorist
- similar pattern in particular groups of words resulting in an umbrella cluster
--> conscientious = orderly, punctual
** you only get what you put in issue
What is Raymond Cattell's 16PF?
- 16 PF
- a measure with things he thought were missing and important with other personality traits
What models did Hans Eyseneck develop?
- Big two
--> intro vs extro
--> unstable vs stable
- Big 3
- -> included those who are not normal = pscyhoticism vs neuroticism
What is Costa + McCrar's Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits?
--> produced from interviews vs lexical hypothesis
What is the discussion about the vaildity of personality tests based on?
- are people just changing = measures still valid
- OR measure just not valid??
What is the difference between the Big 5 and the FFM?
- Openness = Intellect
- Extraversion = surgency
- Neuroticism = emotional stability
Why do people challenge the claim that the FFM is comprehensive?
- not not exhaustively measure individual differences in personality
- eg like an exam where you extrapolate they know shit
What is the model hypothesis?
- where almost every personality trait is substantially related to one or more of the 5 factors
- not worth having a 6th factor so = miscellaneous
What is good about research into the BIG 5?
- compatible with neuroscience
- predictive in specific areas eg jobs + anti vs pro social behaviour
What are facets of a trait?
- smaller similar characteristics that contribute to the trait
EG: agreeableness ---> trust, altruism
What is trait breadth?
- trait can have intermediate levels between the trait and the facets
What are the facets for the FFM trait: Openness?
Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas
What are the facets for the FFM trait: Conscientiousness
Through, responsible, preserving
What are the facets for the FFM trait: Extraversion
Warmth, assertiveness, positive emotions, excitement seeking
What are the facets for the FFM trait: Agreeableness
Good natured, not jealous, mild, co-operative
What are the facets for the FFM trait: Neuroticism
Depression, impulsiveness, anxiety, hostility
What are the following things: BFI-2, Hexaco, The big one?
- model of personality traits
- each with facets
What did Chapman and Goldberg find in 2017 about those who sang in the shower?
Those who are highly agreeable seem to be more likely to sing
- so could use more covert ways to derive personality traits?
Other than singing in the shower being a covert way of measuring a person's agreeableness, what else has been explored?
- looking at the things people have liked on their social media
= market segmentation - where they target specific news/ products addressing the info in their preferred way using this info
Who is Carole Cadwalladr et al?
- people who exposed cambridge analytica
- where companies were exploiting info gathered from "likes" for political gain
What did McAdams in 1993 develop and why?
- belived FFM was not good as it impoverished an individual
- more important to see how these traits manifested to understand
What are the different levels of manifestation of a trait you should observe according to McAdams?
lvl 1: dispositional traits
- potentially unchanging biology (basic tendencies)
lvl 2: Personal concerns
- enduring but developing motivational + strategic individual concerns (characteristic adaptations)
lvl 3: Life narrative
- actively choosing a meaningful life story
What are the 2 different ways of looking at people's personality?
1. Rank order stability/ change
2. Mean level stability/ change
What is rank order stability/ change?
- avg of people's traits scores relative to their peers across time
= on avg: a person high in a trait relative to their peers at t1 will be high in the trait relative to their peer at t2
- a 'variable centred' concept
What is mean level stability/ change?
- the avg of a cohort's trait scores compared across time
= On avg: people within a cohort often don't change much - tells us nothing if circumstances change a lot
What factors can cause individual personality change?
1. Context effects
- with friends or parents
2. Life-changing events
- trauma, dementia
3. Dissociative identity disorder
- the three faces of eve
How has the DSM5 approached different personality psychopathologies?
- hybrid dimensional-categorical model
- 6 specific personality disorder types
- multiple traits
What are the 6 specifc personality disorder types listed in the DSM5?
- borderline narcissistic
What are the multiple traits listed in the DSM5?
- Negative affectivity
- Disinhibition vs compulsivity