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Flashcards in Traits Deck (39)
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1

Describe "personality types"

- diagnosing people as members (or not) of a particular category
- "He's Anal" = certain characteristics
- Encourages dichotomous + polarised thinking
--> can = overgeneralisation

2

What are Jung's interpretation of "types"?

- more on a scale
- more introverted
--> dominant concern w/ internal objects of knowledge - the self
- More extraverted
--> dominant concern with external objects of knowledge - the world
- both types use all four functions

3

What are Jung's 4 functions?

- 4 dynamic by which all people know themselves + the world
- Sensation = perception
- Thinking = logic
- Intuiting = via UCs
- Feeling = evaluation/ judgement

4

How did Myers + Briggs modify + extend "Jung's ideas?

- paired + contrasted so instead of saying you are THIS can say you Favour/ dominated scale
--> sensation vs intuition
--> thinking vs feeling
- Added
--> judging vs perception
- Mixed in
--> introversion vs extraversion

5

What is not so good about using "types" to understand personality?

- not reliable = suggests no invariability but people changeeee bro
- not valid
- not comprehensive = missing stuff: emotional stability
- Not independent = easy to be high on 'opposite'

6

What are traits?

= movement away from types
- dimensions of personality on which individuals vary
EG: everyone is introvert + extrovert to some extent
- depends on situation

7

traits are....

- personal (internal) rather than situational
- stable vs transitory
- consistent vs inconsistent (across similar situations)
- can be relatively broad or narrow (across different situations)
- Potentially universal dimensions

8

What are Allport's non-common traits?

1. Cardinal traits
- single defining traits rarely chracterise individuals (like types)
2. Central traits
- what we mainly mean now
- mentioned in recommendation letters
3. Secondary traits
- like central but more specific to particular response

9

What is the lexical hypothesis?

- all aspects of human personality have already become recorded in the substance of language
= broad terms

10

What is factor analysis?

- principe statistical method of most trait theorist
- similar pattern in particular groups of words resulting in an umbrella cluster
--> conscientious = orderly, punctual
** you only get what you put in issue

11

What is Raymond Cattell's 16PF?

- 16 PF
- a measure with things he thought were missing and important with other personality traits

12

What models did Hans Eyseneck develop?

- Big two
--> intro vs extro
--> unstable vs stable
- Big 3
- -> included those who are not normal = pscyhoticism vs neuroticism

13

What is Costa + McCrar's Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits?

- OCEAN
- Openness
- Conscientiousness
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Neuroticism
--> produced from interviews vs lexical hypothesis

14

What is the discussion about the vaildity of personality tests based on?

- are people just changing = measures still valid
- OR measure just not valid??

15

What is the difference between the Big 5 and the FFM?

FFM: OCEAN
- Openness = Intellect
- Extraversion = surgency
- Neuroticism = emotional stability

16

Why do people challenge the claim that the FFM is comprehensive?

- not not exhaustively measure individual differences in personality
- eg like an exam where you extrapolate they know shit

17

What is the model hypothesis?

- where almost every personality trait is substantially related to one or more of the 5 factors
- not worth having a 6th factor so = miscellaneous

18

What is good about research into the BIG 5?

- compatible with neuroscience
- predictive in specific areas eg jobs + anti vs pro social behaviour

19

What are facets of a trait?

- smaller similar characteristics that contribute to the trait
EG: agreeableness ---> trust, altruism

20

What is trait breadth?

- trait can have intermediate levels between the trait and the facets

21

What are the facets for the FFM trait: Openness?

Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas

22

What are the facets for the FFM trait: Conscientiousness

Through, responsible, preserving

23

What are the facets for the FFM trait: Extraversion

Warmth, assertiveness, positive emotions, excitement seeking

24

What are the facets for the FFM trait: Agreeableness

Good natured, not jealous, mild, co-operative

25

What are the facets for the FFM trait: Neuroticism

Depression, impulsiveness, anxiety, hostility

26

What are the following things: BFI-2, Hexaco, The big one?

- model of personality traits
- each with facets

27

What did Chapman and Goldberg find in 2017 about those who sang in the shower?

Those who are highly agreeable seem to be more likely to sing
- so could use more covert ways to derive personality traits?

28

Other than singing in the shower being a covert way of measuring a person's agreeableness, what else has been explored?

- "likes"
- looking at the things people have liked on their social media
= market segmentation - where they target specific news/ products addressing the info in their preferred way using this info

29

Who is Carole Cadwalladr et al?

- people who exposed cambridge analytica
- where companies were exploiting info gathered from "likes" for political gain

30

What did McAdams in 1993 develop and why?

- belived FFM was not good as it impoverished an individual
- more important to see how these traits manifested to understand

31

What are the different levels of manifestation of a trait you should observe according to McAdams?

lvl 1: dispositional traits
- potentially unchanging biology (basic tendencies)

lvl 2: Personal concerns
- enduring but developing motivational + strategic individual concerns (characteristic adaptations)

lvl 3: Life narrative
- actively choosing a meaningful life story

32

What are the 2 different ways of looking at people's personality?

1. Rank order stability/ change
2. Mean level stability/ change

33

What is rank order stability/ change?

- avg of people's traits scores relative to their peers across time
= on avg: a person high in a trait relative to their peers at t1 will be high in the trait relative to their peer at t2
- a 'variable centred' concept

34

What is mean level stability/ change?

- the avg of a cohort's trait scores compared across time
= On avg: people within a cohort often don't change much - tells us nothing if circumstances change a lot

35

What factors can cause individual personality change?

1. Context effects
- with friends or parents
2. Life-changing events
- trauma, dementia
3. Dissociative identity disorder
- the three faces of eve

36

How has the DSM5 approached different personality psychopathologies?

- hybrid dimensional-categorical model
- 6 specific personality disorder types
- multiple traits

37

What are the 6 specifc personality disorder types listed in the DSM5?

- antisocial
- avoidant
- borderline narcissistic
- Obsessive-compulsive
- Schizotype

38

What are the multiple traits listed in the DSM5?

- Negative affectivity
- Detachment
- Antagonism
- Disinhibition vs compulsivity
- Psychoticism

39

What is an issue with the diagnosis process for a personality disorder (type)?

- eg Anitsocial personality type
--> made up of facets
--> made up of smaller facets
--> can score high on one facet than other
--> which means not everyone who gets this diagnosis are the same and may require different treatments etc