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Flashcards in Traits Deck (39)
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Describe "personality types"

- diagnosing people as members (or not) of a particular category
- "He's Anal" = certain characteristics
- Encourages dichotomous + polarised thinking
--> can = overgeneralisation


What are Jung's interpretation of "types"?

- more on a scale
- more introverted
--> dominant concern w/ internal objects of knowledge - the self
- More extraverted
--> dominant concern with external objects of knowledge - the world
- both types use all four functions


What are Jung's 4 functions?

- 4 dynamic by which all people know themselves + the world
- Sensation = perception
- Thinking = logic
- Intuiting = via UCs
- Feeling = evaluation/ judgement


How did Myers + Briggs modify + extend "Jung's ideas?

- paired + contrasted so instead of saying you are THIS can say you Favour/ dominated scale
--> sensation vs intuition
--> thinking vs feeling
- Added
--> judging vs perception
- Mixed in
--> introversion vs extraversion


What is not so good about using "types" to understand personality?

- not reliable = suggests no invariability but people changeeee bro
- not valid
- not comprehensive = missing stuff: emotional stability
- Not independent = easy to be high on 'opposite'


What are traits?

= movement away from types
- dimensions of personality on which individuals vary
EG: everyone is introvert + extrovert to some extent
- depends on situation


traits are....

- personal (internal) rather than situational
- stable vs transitory
- consistent vs inconsistent (across similar situations)
- can be relatively broad or narrow (across different situations)
- Potentially universal dimensions


What are Allport's non-common traits?

1. Cardinal traits
- single defining traits rarely chracterise individuals (like types)
2. Central traits
- what we mainly mean now
- mentioned in recommendation letters
3. Secondary traits
- like central but more specific to particular response


What is the lexical hypothesis?

- all aspects of human personality have already become recorded in the substance of language
= broad terms


What is factor analysis?

- principe statistical method of most trait theorist
- similar pattern in particular groups of words resulting in an umbrella cluster
--> conscientious = orderly, punctual
** you only get what you put in issue


What is Raymond Cattell's 16PF?

- 16 PF
- a measure with things he thought were missing and important with other personality traits


What models did Hans Eyseneck develop?

- Big two
--> intro vs extro
--> unstable vs stable
- Big 3
- -> included those who are not normal = pscyhoticism vs neuroticism


What is Costa + McCrar's Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits?

- Openness
- Conscientiousness
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Neuroticism
--> produced from interviews vs lexical hypothesis


What is the discussion about the vaildity of personality tests based on?

- are people just changing = measures still valid
- OR measure just not valid??


What is the difference between the Big 5 and the FFM?

- Openness = Intellect
- Extraversion = surgency
- Neuroticism = emotional stability


Why do people challenge the claim that the FFM is comprehensive?

- not not exhaustively measure individual differences in personality
- eg like an exam where you extrapolate they know shit


What is the model hypothesis?

- where almost every personality trait is substantially related to one or more of the 5 factors
- not worth having a 6th factor so = miscellaneous


What is good about research into the BIG 5?

- compatible with neuroscience
- predictive in specific areas eg jobs + anti vs pro social behaviour


What are facets of a trait?

- smaller similar characteristics that contribute to the trait
EG: agreeableness ---> trust, altruism


What is trait breadth?

- trait can have intermediate levels between the trait and the facets


What are the facets for the FFM trait: Openness?

Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas


What are the facets for the FFM trait: Conscientiousness

Through, responsible, preserving


What are the facets for the FFM trait: Extraversion

Warmth, assertiveness, positive emotions, excitement seeking


What are the facets for the FFM trait: Agreeableness

Good natured, not jealous, mild, co-operative


What are the facets for the FFM trait: Neuroticism

Depression, impulsiveness, anxiety, hostility


What are the following things: BFI-2, Hexaco, The big one?

- model of personality traits
- each with facets


What did Chapman and Goldberg find in 2017 about those who sang in the shower?

Those who are highly agreeable seem to be more likely to sing
- so could use more covert ways to derive personality traits?


Other than singing in the shower being a covert way of measuring a person's agreeableness, what else has been explored?

- "likes"
- looking at the things people have liked on their social media
= market segmentation - where they target specific news/ products addressing the info in their preferred way using this info


Who is Carole Cadwalladr et al?

- people who exposed cambridge analytica
- where companies were exploiting info gathered from "likes" for political gain


What did McAdams in 1993 develop and why?

- belived FFM was not good as it impoverished an individual
- more important to see how these traits manifested to understand


What are the different levels of manifestation of a trait you should observe according to McAdams?

lvl 1: dispositional traits
- potentially unchanging biology (basic tendencies)

lvl 2: Personal concerns
- enduring but developing motivational + strategic individual concerns (characteristic adaptations)

lvl 3: Life narrative
- actively choosing a meaningful life story


What are the 2 different ways of looking at people's personality?

1. Rank order stability/ change
2. Mean level stability/ change


What is rank order stability/ change?

- avg of people's traits scores relative to their peers across time
= on avg: a person high in a trait relative to their peers at t1 will be high in the trait relative to their peer at t2
- a 'variable centred' concept


What is mean level stability/ change?

- the avg of a cohort's trait scores compared across time
= On avg: people within a cohort often don't change much - tells us nothing if circumstances change a lot


What factors can cause individual personality change?

1. Context effects
- with friends or parents
2. Life-changing events
- trauma, dementia
3. Dissociative identity disorder
- the three faces of eve


How has the DSM5 approached different personality psychopathologies?

- hybrid dimensional-categorical model
- 6 specific personality disorder types
- multiple traits


What are the 6 specifc personality disorder types listed in the DSM5?

- antisocial
- avoidant
- borderline narcissistic
- Obsessive-compulsive
- Schizotype


What are the multiple traits listed in the DSM5?

- Negative affectivity
- Detachment
- Antagonism
- Disinhibition vs compulsivity
- Psychoticism


What is an issue with the diagnosis process for a personality disorder (type)?

- eg Anitsocial personality type
--> made up of facets
--> made up of smaller facets
--> can score high on one facet than other
--> which means not everyone who gets this diagnosis are the same and may require different treatments etc