Flashcards in Fungal and parasites of the CNS Deck (83):
What are the systemic fungal infections that can cause CNS infections? (5)
What is the most common fungal cause of meningitis? Second most common?
Are the fungi that cause systemic diseases opportunistic?
How are fungi infections started?
What is the form that coccidioides immitis infects?
What is the only encapsulated yeast?
Where is coccidioides immitis found in the world? Why?
Desert southwest d/t drought-rain-drought pattern
What is the morphology of coccidioides immitis?
What are the symptoms of coccidioidomycosis?
Mild to moderate pulmonary disease
How does coccidial meningitis present, relative to bacterial meningitis?
Same symptoms, but much slower onset
How do you diagnose coccidioidomycosis meningitis?
What is the treatment for coccidioidomycosis meningitis?
Can you cultivate coccidioidomycosis
Which fungus is NOT dimorphic? Why?
Cryptococcus neoformans b/c it is encapsulated
India ink stain?
Where is Cryptococcus neoformans found?
Bird droppings, soil
What are the symptoms of infx with Cryptococcus neoformans usually? What about for meningeal infections?
Mild pulmonary disease (or none)
Slow meningitis symptoms
What population are we concerned about with Cryptococcus neoformans infections (cryptococcosis)?
How do you diagnose Cryptococcus neoformans? How sensitive is this?
India ink stain
What is the treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans infections of the CNS?
Long term Amp B and 5-fluorocytosine
What causes rhinocerebral mucormycosis? Who is usually infected with this?
DM pts usually get these
What are the symptoms of rhinocerebral mucormycosis?
What are the three molds that cause zygomycosis?
Are zygomycetes septate? Broad or narrow?
How do you diagnose zygomycosis?
What is the treatment for zygomycosis?
What is the parasite that causes GI symptoms, and can also cause CNS infections?
What do entamoeba histolytica cause in the brain?
What does trypanosoma brucei cause?
What does plasmodium falciparum cause?
What causes cerebral malaria?
What causes sleeping sickness?
What causes neurocysticercosis?
What are the three genera of amoeba that cause infections in man?
Where are the opportunistic amoebas found in the environment?
What is primary cause of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)?
How is Naegleria acquired?
Snorting water while swimming
What are the symptoms of Naegleria infections?
Fever, HA, CNS, death
What are the amoebas associated with Neti Pot use?
How do you diagnose naegleria fowleri?
Trophozoites in CSF
True or false: Infection with naegleria fowleri is usually fatal
How do you treat naegleria fowleri infections?
Amp B... maybe
What causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE)?
Acanthamoeba and balamunthia
What is the pathology of acanthamoeba and balamunthia?
Amoebas invade the brain, resulting in slow CNS involvement and ulcerative lesions
What is acanthamoeba keratitis? What are infections associated with?
Chronic infection of the cornea, associated with contact lenses
What are the symptoms of acanthamoeba keratitis?
Corneal ulceration and ocular pain
How does acanhamoeba appear under a microscope?
How does toxoplasma gondii move about?
Sporozoan (tank tread)
Where are toxoplasma cysts found?
What does the TORCH test used on pregnant women screen for?
True or false: infections with toxoplasma gondii are usually fatal?
False- usually asymptomatic
What can toxoplasma lead to if a pt becomes immunosuppressed?
What are the congenital symptoms of toxoplasmosis gondii?
What are the ocular signs of toxoplasmosis?
Small, asymptomatic scarring
What do the toxoplasma lesions look like on a CT?
Ring enhanced lesion
How does transmission of toxoplasma gondii occur? (2)
Ingestion of cysts through meats
What are the definitive hosts for toxoplasma gondii?
How are cats infected with toxoplasma?
When are congential transmission of toxoplasma concerning?
When **primary** infection occurs during pregnancy--later the better
What are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis, if it is symptomatic at all?
When, besides pregnancy, it toxoplasmosis concerning? What can it cause?
How do you diagnose toxoplasmosis? (3)
1. PCR testing
2. IgM or rising IgG in mother
3. IgM in newborn
How do you prevent toxoplasmosis?
Avoid cat feces
What is the treatment for toxoplasmosis? When?
What causes neurocysticercosis?
What are the GI symptoms of tenia solium?
What is the main pathology with cystercercosis?
Lesions in vital organs
What are the symptoms of neurocysticercosis?
Szs, neuro stuff
What population gets neurocysticercosis?
How do you diagnose neurocysticercosis?
What is the main disease that is associated with ascaris lumbricoides?
What causes visceral larval migrans?
Ascarid worms (similar to Lumbricoides) from dogs/cats
What is the mech of transmission of visceral larval migrans?
Ingestion of eggs via dog/cat poop contamination
What happens in infections with visceral larval migrans?
Granulomatous lesions in vital organs d/t larval death
What are the symptoms of visceral larval migrans?
Depend on location of granuloma development
How do you diagnose visceral larval migrans?
Can you diagnose viceral larval migrans via fecal cysts?
No, because there are no cysts
What is the treatment for visceral larval migrans?
Sphereules = ?
Broad, aseptate hyphae, branching at 90 degree angles = ?
Septate hyphae, branching at 45 degree angles = ?
What two places in the body does acanthamoeba infect?
Eye (acanthamoeba keratitis) and brain (GAE)