Flashcards in Zoonotic Deck (60):
What is zoonoses?
Diseases of vertebrate animals that can be transmitted to man
What is an arboviral disease?
Disease where an insect vector is involved (arthropod-borne)
Can be zoonotic, but not always
What are the symptoms of west nile virus?
Fever/nonspecific to encephalitis
What is the life-cycle of west nile virus?
Birds to mosquitoes to humans as incidental host
What percent of reported/diagnosed west nile viruses cause a neuroinvasive disease?
What is the only way west nile can be transmitted to humans?
(not human-human, or horse-humans)
When are west nile infections common?
Mid to late summer months
What are the reservoirs for west nile? Do they die?
Usually do not die
Can west nile be transmitted via breast milk?
Do we develop a high viremia levels to west nile?
Can transfusions transmit WNV?
Yes, if not screened for
What are the usual symptoms of WNV (west nile fever)?
Mild to asymptomatic
What are the severe symptoms of WNV?
What is the greatest risk factor for developing the neuroinvasive form of WNV?
Age (older, more severe)
How do you diagnose WNV?
What is the treatment for neuroinvasive CSF?
When should you suspect WNV-causing encephalitis?
Unexplained encephalitis in old people in late summer or early fall
What is the St. Louis virus?
Arbovirus that causes encephalitis
How is St. Louis virus transmitted?
Mosquitoes from infected birds, just liek WNV
Where is St. Louis virus found usually? When?
Temperate areas in late summer/early fall
What are the symptoms of st louis infx?
Sudden, but mild fever, HA
What are the severe symptoms of st louis virus? Who usually gets this?
Old people get this
What is the treatment for St. Louis encephalitis?
How do you diagnose St. Louis encephalitis?
What is the Japanese encephalitis virus?
Just like WNV, but in Asia
What are the togaviruses discussed in class? How are these transmitted?
EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalitis)
What are the definitive hosts for EEE, WEE, and VEE? How are they transmitted to us?
What time of year are EEE, WEE, or VEE occur?
Later summer, early fall
What are the symptoms of EEE/WEE/VEE?
Mild usually, but can be encephalitis
What fraction of people with clinical encephalitis cause be EEE,WEE or VEE die?
What population(s) are more susceptible to EEE/WEE/VEE -caused encephalitis?
Children for WEE
Old people for EEE/VEE
What is the cause of LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis virus? What is the definitive host? How is it transmitted to us?
Arbovirus maintained in rodents
We get it through mosquito bites
What population usually get infected with LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis?
What are the symptoms of LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis?
just like WNV
Can rabies be transmitted via aerosol or corneal exposure?
Most rabies infections are transmitted to humans how?
Dogs or bats
What is the treatment for a bite with a rabid animal?
Post-exposure prophylaxis via IVIG and vaccination
What is the MOA of rabies?
Retrograde transport through neurons
What are the initial symptoms of rabies?
Flu-like, then CNS stuff
What are the severe symptoms of rabies?
What is the classic sign of rabies?
What is the treatment for rabies infections?
Immunoglobulin + vaccine x5
How do you diagnose rabies?
Negri bodies in dead animal neurons
How do you prevent rabies?
vaccination of animals and persons
Negri bodies in neurons are diagnostic for what disease?
Rabies (note these are only seen post mortem)
What is lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)?
Rodent borne virus which causes aseptic meningitis/encephalitis
Most infections of LCMV are spread how?
What are the symptoms of LCMV?
Transmission of LCMV occurs how?
Inhaling aerosolized particles of rodent urine/feces
Is there person-person transmission of LCMV?
Not been reported
What are the symptoms of LCMV?
biphasic-fever then encephalitis
What are the rare but serious sequelae of LCMV?
Temporary or permanent neuro damage
What are prions?
Protein misfolding causing encephalitis
What is kuru (spongiform encephalopathy)?
What is the protein that causes prion disease?
Are prion diseases transmitted or arise spontaneously?
What population(s) are usually affected most by prion diseases?
How do you diagnose prion diseases?
Post mortem histological section
What is the treatment for prions?