Zoonotic Flashcards Preview

Microbio > Zoonotic > Flashcards

Flashcards in Zoonotic Deck (60):
1

What is zoonoses?

Diseases of vertebrate animals that can be transmitted to man

2

What is an arboviral disease?

Disease where an insect vector is involved (arthropod-borne)

Can be zoonotic, but not always

3

What are the symptoms of west nile virus?

Fever/nonspecific to encephalitis

4

What is the life-cycle of west nile virus?

Birds to mosquitoes to humans as incidental host

5

What percent of reported/diagnosed west nile viruses cause a neuroinvasive disease?

~50%

6

What is the only way west nile can be transmitted to humans?

Through mosquitoes
(not human-human, or horse-humans)

7

When are west nile infections common?

Mid to late summer months

8

What are the reservoirs for west nile? Do they die?

Birds

Usually do not die

9

Can west nile be transmitted via breast milk?

Yes

10

Do we develop a high viremia levels to west nile?

No

11

Can transfusions transmit WNV?

Yes, if not screened for

12

What are the usual symptoms of WNV (west nile fever)?

Mild to asymptomatic

13

What are the severe symptoms of WNV?

Encephalitis/neuro symptoms

Limb paralysis

14

What is the greatest risk factor for developing the neuroinvasive form of WNV?

Age (older, more severe)

15

How do you diagnose WNV?

serology, CSF

16

What is the treatment for neuroinvasive CSF?

Supportive

17

When should you suspect WNV-causing encephalitis?

Unexplained encephalitis in old people in late summer or early fall

18

What is the St. Louis virus?

Arbovirus that causes encephalitis

19

How is St. Louis virus transmitted?

Mosquitoes from infected birds, just liek WNV

20

Where is St. Louis virus found usually? When?

Temperate areas in late summer/early fall

21

What are the symptoms of st louis infx?

Sudden, but mild fever, HA

22

What are the severe symptoms of st louis virus? Who usually gets this?

Encephalitis

Old people get this

23

What is the treatment for St. Louis encephalitis?

Supportive

24

How do you diagnose St. Louis encephalitis?

Serological testing

25

What is the Japanese encephalitis virus?

Just like WNV, but in Asia

26

What are the togaviruses discussed in class? How are these transmitted?

EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalitis)
WEE
VEE (Venezuelan)
Mosquitoes

27

What are the definitive hosts for EEE, WEE, and VEE? How are they transmitted to us?

Birds

Through mosquitoes

28

What time of year are EEE, WEE, or VEE occur?

Later summer, early fall

29

What are the symptoms of EEE/WEE/VEE?

Mild usually, but can be encephalitis

30

What fraction of people with clinical encephalitis cause be EEE,WEE or VEE die?

1/3

31

What population(s) are more susceptible to EEE/WEE/VEE -caused encephalitis?

Children for WEE
Old people for EEE/VEE

32

What is the cause of LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis virus? What is the definitive host? How is it transmitted to us?

Arbovirus maintained in rodents

We get it through mosquito bites

33

What population usually get infected with LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis?

Children

34

What are the symptoms of LaCrosse (cali) encephalitis?

just like WNV

35

Can rabies be transmitted via aerosol or corneal exposure?

Yes

36

Most rabies infections are transmitted to humans how?

Dogs or bats

37

What is the treatment for a bite with a rabid animal?

Post-exposure prophylaxis via IVIG and vaccination

38

What is the MOA of rabies?

Retrograde transport through neurons

39

What are the initial symptoms of rabies?

Flu-like, then CNS stuff

40

What are the severe symptoms of rabies?

CNS/peripheral nerves

41

What is the classic sign of rabies?

Hydrophobia

42

What is the treatment for rabies infections?

supportive

Immunoglobulin + vaccine x5

43

How do you diagnose rabies?

serology
Negri bodies in dead animal neurons

44

How do you prevent rabies?

vaccination of animals and persons

45

Negri bodies in neurons are diagnostic for what disease?

Rabies (note these are only seen post mortem)

46

What is lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)?

Rodent borne virus which causes aseptic meningitis/encephalitis

47

Most infections of LCMV are spread how?

House mice

48

What are the symptoms of LCMV?

Usually asymptomatic

49

Transmission of LCMV occurs how?

Inhaling aerosolized particles of rodent urine/feces

50

Is there person-person transmission of LCMV?

Not been reported

51

What are the symptoms of LCMV?

biphasic-fever then encephalitis

52

What are the rare but serious sequelae of LCMV?

Temporary or permanent neuro damage

Fetal abnormalities

53

What are prions?

Protein misfolding causing encephalitis

54

What is kuru (spongiform encephalopathy)?

Prion disease

55

What is the protein that causes prion disease?

PrP^Sc

56

Are prion diseases transmitted or arise spontaneously?

Both

57

What population(s) are usually affected most by prion diseases?

Old Euros

58

How do you diagnose prion diseases?

Post mortem histological section

59

What is the treatment for prions?

None

60

Biphasic fever/malaise non-specific symptoms, then meningiti/encephalitis = ?

LCMV