Flashcards in RA sterilization Deck (50):
Recent studies in the US conclude that about (what %) of the hospital-acquired infections are preventable.
What is the most common hospital acquired infection?
What is primary bacteremia? Secondary?
Primary= When bacteria gain direct entry to bloodstream
Secondary = from infection to elsewhere
Most bacterial infection prior to the discovery of penicillin were due to what type of bacteria? Now?
Now gram negative
True or false: The same organism can be transmitted by more than one route
he total destruction or physical removal of ALL microorganisms
What is moist heat sterilization?
saturated steam under pressure, as in an autoclave
What is the most widely used, and most inexpensive form of sterilization?
What must be done to destroy prions?
Boiled in 1 M NaOH for 10 minutes
True or false: boiling is a sterilization method
False--It is method of disinfection.
What is the dry heat form of sterilization? What is it used for? What are its limitations?
Using an oven for equipment that could be damaged by moisture
May not kill pyrogens
When is the ethylene oxide gas sterilization technique used?
For equipment that is sensitive to heat and moisture
What is the MOA of ethylene oxide gas?
alkylating protein, DNA and RNA within cells
When is irradiation used? What type of rays are used? MOA?
in lab cabinets,
MOA = damage DNA
he process of removing or killing most, but not all, viable organisms
What characterizes a high level disinfectant?
kill almost everything except for a large number of spores
What characterizes an intermediate level disinfectant?
Most of all type of microorgansism, but no spores
What characterizes a low-level disinfectant?
Can kill most bacteria and fungi in a reasonable period of time. Only some viruses.
What level of disinfectant is glutaraldehye?
What level of disinfectant are oxidixzing agents (peracetic acid, H2O2, blech etc)?
What level of disinfectant is alcohol?
What level of disinfectant is iodine containing compounds?
What level of disinfectant are phenolic compounds?
What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting surgical instruments that cannot be sterilized?
What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting semi-critical surgical instruments that cannot be sterilized?
What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting stethoscopes, BP cuffs, and EKG electrodes?
What level of disinfectant are quaternary ammonium compounds?
True or false: Many organisms survive treatment using low level disinfectants
When are low level disinfectants suitable to be used?
When the instruments come in contact with intact skin only
What are antiseptics?
disinfectants used to lower the number of microorganisms on skin surfaces
Do antiseptics kill bacterial spores?
What type of disinfecting agent is EtOH?
What type of disinfecting agent are phenolic compounds?
What type of disinfecting agents are iodine containing compounds?
What type of disinfecting agent is chlorhexidine?
What type of disinfecting agents are quaternary ammonium compounds?
What type of disinfecting agent is triclosan?
Do any of the antiseptics kill spores?
Which is more effective at killing bacteria, 70% EtOH solution, or a 95% solution?
Which are more effective, iodine containing compounds, or EtOH?
What is the MOA of phenolic compounds? (high and low [C])
Penetrate and disrupt the cell wall in high concentrations
Disrupt enzymes in low [C]
What are the most effective skin antiseptics?
Iodine containing solutions
What is a tincture of iodine?
2% solution of iodine and potassium iodide in ethanol
What are iodophores?
Combinations of iodine and a stabilizing agent or carrier.
Which compound has a residual antiseptic effect, EtOH or Iodine?
What is the MOA of chlorhexidine?
What is the MOA of quaternary ammonium compounds?
Attack energy producing enzymes/denature proteins
What is the MOA of triclosan?
Inhibits bacterial lipid synthesis
What is pasteurization? Does it destroy spores?
the process of heating liquids (like milk, beer or fruit juices) to a specific temperature (55-75°C) for a specific period of time in order to destroy harmful organisms like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeast.
It does not destroy spores.