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Flashcards in RA sterilization Deck (50):
1

Recent studies in the US conclude that about (what %) of the hospital-acquired infections are preventable.

1/3

2

What is the most common hospital acquired infection?

UTI

3

What is primary bacteremia? Secondary?

Primary= When bacteria gain direct entry to bloodstream

Secondary = from infection to elsewhere

4

Most bacterial infection prior to the discovery of penicillin were due to what type of bacteria? Now?

Gram positive

Now gram negative

5

True or false: The same organism can be transmitted by more than one route

True

6

Define sterilization.

he total destruction or physical removal of ALL microorganisms

7

What is moist heat sterilization?

saturated steam under pressure, as in an autoclave

8

What is the most widely used, and most inexpensive form of sterilization?

Moist heat

9

What must be done to destroy prions?

Boiled in 1 M NaOH for 10 minutes

10

True or false: boiling is a sterilization method

False--It is method of disinfection.

11

What is the dry heat form of sterilization? What is it used for? What are its limitations?

Using an oven for equipment that could be damaged by moisture

May not kill pyrogens

12

When is the ethylene oxide gas sterilization technique used?

For equipment that is sensitive to heat and moisture

13

What is the MOA of ethylene oxide gas?

alkylating protein, DNA and RNA within cells

14

When is irradiation used? What type of rays are used? MOA?

in lab cabinets,

gamma rays

MOA = damage DNA

15

Define diinfection.

he process of removing or killing most, but not all, viable organisms

16

What characterizes a high level disinfectant?

kill almost everything except for a large number of spores

17

What characterizes an intermediate level disinfectant?

Most of all type of microorgansism, but no spores

18

What characterizes a low-level disinfectant?

Can kill most bacteria and fungi in a reasonable period of time. Only some viruses.

19

What level of disinfectant is glutaraldehye?

High

20

What level of disinfectant are oxidixzing agents (peracetic acid, H2O2, blech etc)?

High

21

What level of disinfectant is alcohol?

Intermediate

22

What level of disinfectant is iodine containing compounds?

Intermediate

23

What level of disinfectant are phenolic compounds?

Intermediate

24

What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting surgical instruments that cannot be sterilized?

High level

25

What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting semi-critical surgical instruments that cannot be sterilized?

Intermediate level

26

What level of disinfection is appropriate for disinfecting stethoscopes, BP cuffs, and EKG electrodes?

Low level

27

What level of disinfectant are quaternary ammonium compounds?

Low level

28

True or false: Many organisms survive treatment using low level disinfectants

True

29

When are low level disinfectants suitable to be used?

When the instruments come in contact with intact skin only

30

What are antiseptics?

disinfectants used to lower the number of microorganisms on skin surfaces

31

Do antiseptics kill bacterial spores?

No

32

What type of disinfecting agent is EtOH?

Antiseptic

33

What type of disinfecting agent are phenolic compounds?

Antiseptic

34

What type of disinfecting agents are iodine containing compounds?

Antiseptic

35

What type of disinfecting agent is chlorhexidine?

Antiseptic

36

What type of disinfecting agents are quaternary ammonium compounds?

Antiseptic

37

What type of disinfecting agent is triclosan?

Antiseptic

38

Do any of the antiseptics kill spores?

No

39

Which is more effective at killing bacteria, 70% EtOH solution, or a 95% solution?

70%

40

Which are more effective, iodine containing compounds, or EtOH?

Iodine

41

What is the MOA of phenolic compounds? (high and low [C])

Penetrate and disrupt the cell wall in high concentrations

Disrupt enzymes in low [C]

42

What are the most effective skin antiseptics?

Iodine containing solutions

43

What is a tincture of iodine?

2% solution of iodine and potassium iodide in ethanol

44

What are iodophores?

Combinations of iodine and a stabilizing agent or carrier.

45

Which compound has a residual antiseptic effect, EtOH or Iodine?

Iodine

46

What is the MOA of chlorhexidine?

Membrane disruption

47

What is the MOA of quaternary ammonium compounds?

Attack energy producing enzymes/denature proteins

48

What is the MOA of triclosan?

Inhibits bacterial lipid synthesis

49

What is pasteurization? Does it destroy spores?

the process of heating liquids (like milk, beer or fruit juices) to a specific temperature (55-75°C) for a specific period of time in order to destroy harmful organisms like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeast.

It does not destroy spores.

50

True or false: pasteruization's aim is to kill all microorganisms

False-Aims to achieve a "logarithmic reduction" in the number of viable organisms, reducing their number so they are unlikely to cause disease