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NPLEX - Microbiology and Immunology > Fungi > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fungi Deck (77)
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31

What special lab test does the capsule of Cryptocuccus neoformans permit?

latex agglutination test detects polysaccharide capsular antigen

32

What disease does C. albicans cause in immunocompromised patients?

Oral thrush in throat (neonates, steroids, diabetes, AIDS)

33

What is the morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans?

heavily encapsulated yeast

34

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Cryptococcus neoformans? (6)

urease positive; encapsulated; spinal tap reveals pleocyosis, increased lymphocytes, low glucose, and organism that can be cultured.

35

Cryptococcus neoformans stains best with which substance?

india ink

36

What disease does C. albicans cause in babies?

diaper rash

37

What region is associated with Coccidioides immitis?

endemic in the southwest US

38

Is C. albicans, infection local, systemic, or both?

both

39

What class of organism is Pneumocystis carinii?

yeast (originally classified as protozoan)

40

What are the clinical manifestations of Candida albicans? (3)

thrush-white patches on red base can be scraped off. Candidal vaginitis-erythema, white discharge, itching and burning. Red patches with satellite pustules. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis-multiple red, pustular or thick lesions, esp on face.

41

What are the clinical manifestations of Penicillium?

allergy (spores); penicilliosis (in AIDS)

42

What do you culture Cryptococcus neoformans on?

culture on Sabouraud's agar

43

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Coccidioides immitis? (3)

tissue and sputum samples show spherules; XCR shows coin-shaped lesions; Serum will show specific antibodies

44

Why is the disease caused by Coccidioidomycosis called valley fever?

common in the San Joaquin Valley

45

What are the clinical manifestations of Mucor species? (2)

allergic reaction (spores); opportunistic infections of skin, sinuses in immunocompromised patients.

46

Is H. capsulatum found intracellularly or extracellularly?

intracellular (frequently seen inside macrophages)

47

Identify the major virulence/toxicity factors associated with Stachybotris. (1)

produces a toxin that can cause pulmonary hemorrhage if inhaled.

48

What is the morphology of Mucor sp/? (2)

mold with irregular non-septate hyphae branching at wide angles (>90 deg). Large fluffy white colonies that turn gray or brown age.

49

Other than thrush and vulvovaginitis, what other diseases can Candida albicans cause? (2)

disseminated candidiasis (to any organ) and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

50

Describe the symptoms of Coccidioides immitis infection. (7)

coccidioidomycosis (San Joaquin valley fever)-fever, cough, chest pain, sore throat, hemoptysis. In some patients, conjunctivitis, arthritis, erythema nodosum.

51

What immune modifying diseases are most commonly associated wit infection with Mucor sp? (2)

ketoacidotic diabetics, leukemic patients

52

Identify the major virulence/toxicity factors associated with Histoplasma capsulaturm. (1)

Macrophages eat spores which then bud into yeast intracellularly are transported all over the body.

53

How is a stain of Pneumocystis carinii prepared?

silver stain of lung tissue

54

What is the morphology of Alternaria?

dark green to brown 'velvet' colonies

55

How does Candida albicans gram stain?

positive

56

How is Histoplasma capsulatum transmitted?

spores inhaled with dust

57

What is the major reservoir for Pneumoncystis carinii?

ubiquitous in the environment

58

What is the major reservoir for Cryptococcus neoformans?

soil

59

How is superficial fungal infections transmitted?

direct contact with other infected individuals

60

What are the clinical manifestations of Stachybotris? (4)

nosebleeds, cough, chest congestion, may lead to infection and pulmonary hemorrhage.