Flashcards in Parasites Deck (63):
What condition does trichomonas vaginalis cause?
trichomoniasis/ Vaginitis. foul-smelling, greenish discharge; itching and burning
What is the morphology of Babesla bigemina (Babesia microti)?
How is Leishmania donovani transmitted?
How is Ascaris lumbricoides transmitted?
eggs in soil may contaminate food or be inhaled
How is Giardia lamblia transmitted?
cysts in water
How is Taenla (T. saginata, T. sollum) transmitted?
ingestion of under cooked beef or pork
What are the clinical manifestation of Cryptosporidium parvum? (3)
crytosporidiosis-1-2 weeks incubation, followed by explosive watery diarrhea with abdominal pain for 5-11 days
What is the morphology of Ascaris lumbricoides?
roundworm, up to 25 cm
What is the morphology of Giardia lamblia?
What are the clinical manifestations of Plasmodium species? (6)
jaundice, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, anemia. Paroxysm, malaise, sudden chills and high fever, polyuria, rapid pulse, headache and nausea followed by drop in fever and profuse sweating for two or three hours. Paroxysms repeat every 48 to 72 hours
What disease does Plasmodium cause?
What is the morphology of Toxoplasma gondii?
What is the major reservoir for Necator americanus and Ancylostoma dudenale?
How is Diphyliobothrium laturn transmitted?
ingestion of raw fish
What is the major reservoir for Leishmania?
many wild mammals
Describe the clinical manifestations of Schistosoma Infection. (5)
granulomas, fibrosis, inflammation of spllen, inflammation of liver, portal hypertension
What are the clinical manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofi? (3)
Lymphatic filarsis (elephantiasis)-8-12 month incubation, fever or asymptomatic, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis usually femoral, spreading down legs. Obstruction of lymphatics
Which lab findings are useful to help diagnose Leishmania?
cultured samples show Leishman-Donovan bodies.
What are the clinical manifestations of Diphyliobothrium letum? (2)
vitamin B12 deficiency and resulting megaloblastic anemia
What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Ascaris lumbricoides? (2)
finding worms or eggs in stool, or larvae and eosinophils in sputum
What are the clinical manifestations of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale? (3)
microcytic anemia, fatigue and nutritional deficiencies
What is the major reservoir for Diphyliobothrium letum?
What disease(s) does Cryptosporidium cause? (2)
severe diarrhea in AIDS. Mild disease (watery diarrhea) in non HIV
How is tToxoplasma gondii transmitted? (3)
oral ingestion of feces of domestic cats or contaminated raw meat or water. Transplacental transmission can also occur.
How is Babesia diagnosed? (3)
blood smear, no RBC pigment, appears as maltese cross
What is the morphology of trichomonas vaginalis?
How is entamoeba histolytica transmitted?
ingestion of food and water contaminated with cysts
How are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale transmitted?
burrows through skin of feet or legs
How is Wuchereria bancrofi transmitted?
Name two populations associated with toxoplasma gondii.
pregnant and immunocompromised patients
What are the clinical manifestations of Enterobius vermicularis? (2)
perianal itching-periodic nocturnal occasional vaginitis.
Which regions are associated with Wuchereria bancrofi? (3)
Asia, Africa, Latin America
What are the clinical manifestations of Leishmania? (5)
"Oriental sore" (aka Chiciero's ulcer)-heals but leaves a pitted scar. Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala azar)-hepatosplenomegaly, grey skin, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy 90% mortality if not treated.
What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Plasmodium species? (3)
glesma stain can identify species. Initial IgM increase, subsequent IgG increase
Relevant epidemiology and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum. (2)
Epidemics in day cares and other institutions. May be lethal in immunocompromised.
How is Cryptosporidium parvum transmitted? (2)
Fecal-Oral, person to person. Contaminated water.
How is trichomonas vaginalis diagnosed?
trophozoites on wet mount
What are the clinical manifestations of Taenia (T. saginata, T. solium)? (2)
malnutrition, cysticercosis (space occupying lesions, serious if in brain)
What are the clinical manifestations of entamoeba histolytica? (3)
bloody, histolytic (ie 'broken cell'), mucous diarrhea with abdominal pain, cramping and flatulence. Alternates with constipation for months to years. May progress to liver where it will cause an abscess with RuQ pain, weight loss, fever and hepatomegaly.
What is the morphology of Plasmodium species?
What are the clinical manifestations of Trichinella spiralis? (4)
trichinosis-fever, myalgia, periorbital edema, eosinophilla, acute inflammation
What is the morphology of Cryptosporidium parvum?
Trichinella spiralis (a nematode) is usually found in what food?
under cooked meat, usually pork
How is trichomonas vaginalis transmitted?
What is the major reservoir for Schistosoma species?
Name two diseases caused by Toxoplasma
brain abscess in HIV, birth defects
Which disease does Leishmania donovani cause?
visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
What are the clinical manifesations of Ascaris lumbricoides? (4)
ascariasis, fever, cough, wheezing, dyspnea, eosinophilia, migratory pulmonary infiltrates (compare asthma, bronchitis)
Identify the major virulence/toxicity factors associated with Leishmania
use histiocytes to invade every organ
What are the clinical manifestations of Babesia bigemina (Babesia microti)? (4)
fatigue, arthritis, prolonged fever and hemolytic anemia.
What is the major reservoir for Trichinella spiralis? (2)
How is it entamoeba histolytica diagnosed? (2)
serology and/or trophozoites or cysts in stool
How is Giardia lambilia transmitted?
water or food contaminated with feces
What is the major reservoir for Plasmodium species?
How is toxoplasma diagnosed? (2)
What are the clinical manifestations of Toxoplasma gondiii? (5)
abortion, still birth, malformation, chorloretinis, mental retardation. Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic but encephalitis in immunocompromised
How is Babesia transmitted?
What are the clinical manifestations of Giardia lamblia? (5)
gastroenteritis. non-bloody foul smelling diarrhea with abdominal cramps, distention, flatulence, nausea, vomiting and sometimes low grade fever.
How is Giardia lamblia diagnosed? (2)
trophozoites or cysts in stool
What condition does trypanosoma cruzi cause?
What is the major reservoir for entamoeba histolytica?
water and food
What is the major reservoir for Cryptosporidium parvum?