Parasites Flashcards Preview

NPLEX - Microbiology and Immunology > Parasites > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parasites Deck (63):
1

What condition does trichomonas vaginalis cause?

trichomoniasis/ Vaginitis. foul-smelling, greenish discharge; itching and burning

2

What is the morphology of Babesla bigemina (Babesia microti)?

sporozoa

3

How is Leishmania donovani transmitted?

sandfly

4

How is Ascaris lumbricoides transmitted?

eggs in soil may contaminate food or be inhaled

5

How is Giardia lamblia transmitted?

cysts in water

6

How is Taenla (T. saginata, T. sollum) transmitted?

ingestion of under cooked beef or pork

7

What are the clinical manifestation of Cryptosporidium parvum? (3)

crytosporidiosis-1-2 weeks incubation, followed by explosive watery diarrhea with abdominal pain for 5-11 days

8

What is the morphology of Ascaris lumbricoides?

roundworm, up to 25 cm

9

What is the morphology of Giardia lamblia?

flagellated protozoa

10

What are the clinical manifestations of Plasmodium species? (6)

jaundice, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, anemia. Paroxysm, malaise, sudden chills and high fever, polyuria, rapid pulse, headache and nausea followed by drop in fever and profuse sweating for two or three hours. Paroxysms repeat every 48 to 72 hours

11

What disease does Plasmodium cause?

malaria

12

What is the morphology of Toxoplasma gondii?

sporozoa

13

What is the major reservoir for Necator americanus and Ancylostoma dudenale?

moist soil

14

How is Diphyliobothrium laturn transmitted?

ingestion of raw fish

15

What is the major reservoir for Leishmania?

many wild mammals

16

Describe the clinical manifestations of Schistosoma Infection. (5)

granulomas, fibrosis, inflammation of spllen, inflammation of liver, portal hypertension

17

What are the clinical manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofi? (3)

Lymphatic filarsis (elephantiasis)-8-12 month incubation, fever or asymptomatic, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis usually femoral, spreading down legs. Obstruction of lymphatics

18

Which lab findings are useful to help diagnose Leishmania?

cultured samples show Leishman-Donovan bodies.

19

What are the clinical manifestations of Diphyliobothrium letum? (2)

vitamin B12 deficiency and resulting megaloblastic anemia

20

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Ascaris lumbricoides? (2)

finding worms or eggs in stool, or larvae and eosinophils in sputum

21

What are the clinical manifestations of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale? (3)

microcytic anemia, fatigue and nutritional deficiencies

22

What is the major reservoir for Diphyliobothrium letum?

fish

23

What disease(s) does Cryptosporidium cause? (2)

severe diarrhea in AIDS. Mild disease (watery diarrhea) in non HIV

24

How is tToxoplasma gondii transmitted? (3)

oral ingestion of feces of domestic cats or contaminated raw meat or water. Transplacental transmission can also occur.

25

How is Babesia diagnosed? (3)

blood smear, no RBC pigment, appears as maltese cross

26

What is the morphology of trichomonas vaginalis?

flagellated protozoa

27

How is entamoeba histolytica transmitted?

ingestion of food and water contaminated with cysts

28

How are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale transmitted?

burrows through skin of feet or legs

29

How is Wuchereria bancrofi transmitted?

mosquitos

30

Name two populations associated with toxoplasma gondii.

pregnant and immunocompromised patients

31

What are the clinical manifestations of Enterobius vermicularis? (2)

perianal itching-periodic nocturnal occasional vaginitis.

32

Which regions are associated with Wuchereria bancrofi? (3)

Asia, Africa, Latin America

33

What are the clinical manifestations of Leishmania? (5)

"Oriental sore" (aka Chiciero's ulcer)-heals but leaves a pitted scar. Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala azar)-hepatosplenomegaly, grey skin, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy 90% mortality if not treated.

34

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose Plasmodium species? (3)

glesma stain can identify species. Initial IgM increase, subsequent IgG increase

35

Relevant epidemiology and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum. (2)

Epidemics in day cares and other institutions. May be lethal in immunocompromised.

36

How is Cryptosporidium parvum transmitted? (2)

Fecal-Oral, person to person. Contaminated water.

37

How is trichomonas vaginalis diagnosed?

trophozoites on wet mount

38

What are the clinical manifestations of Taenia (T. saginata, T. solium)? (2)

malnutrition, cysticercosis (space occupying lesions, serious if in brain)

39

What are the clinical manifestations of entamoeba histolytica? (3)

bloody, histolytic (ie 'broken cell'), mucous diarrhea with abdominal pain, cramping and flatulence. Alternates with constipation for months to years. May progress to liver where it will cause an abscess with RuQ pain, weight loss, fever and hepatomegaly.

40

What is the morphology of Plasmodium species?

sporozoa

41

What are the clinical manifestations of Trichinella spiralis? (4)

trichinosis-fever, myalgia, periorbital edema, eosinophilla, acute inflammation

42

What is the morphology of Cryptosporidium parvum?

sporozoa

43

Trichinella spiralis (a nematode) is usually found in what food?

under cooked meat, usually pork

44

How is trichomonas vaginalis transmitted?

sexual

45

What is the major reservoir for Schistosoma species?

snails

46

Name two diseases caused by Toxoplasma

brain abscess in HIV, birth defects

47

Which disease does Leishmania donovani cause?

visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

48

What are the clinical manifesations of Ascaris lumbricoides? (4)

ascariasis, fever, cough, wheezing, dyspnea, eosinophilia, migratory pulmonary infiltrates (compare asthma, bronchitis)

49

Identify the major virulence/toxicity factors associated with Leishmania

use histiocytes to invade every organ

50

What are the clinical manifestations of Babesia bigemina (Babesia microti)? (4)

fatigue, arthritis, prolonged fever and hemolytic anemia.

51

What is the major reservoir for Trichinella spiralis? (2)

pigs, bears

52

How is it entamoeba histolytica diagnosed? (2)

serology and/or trophozoites or cysts in stool

53

How is Giardia lambilia transmitted?

water or food contaminated with feces

54

What is the major reservoir for Plasmodium species?

humans

55

How is toxoplasma diagnosed? (2)

serology, biopsy

56

What are the clinical manifestations of Toxoplasma gondiii? (5)

abortion, still birth, malformation, chorloretinis, mental retardation. Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic but encephalitis in immunocompromised

57

How is Babesia transmitted?

ixodes tick

58

What are the clinical manifestations of Giardia lamblia? (5)

gastroenteritis. non-bloody foul smelling diarrhea with abdominal cramps, distention, flatulence, nausea, vomiting and sometimes low grade fever.

59

How is Giardia lamblia diagnosed? (2)

trophozoites or cysts in stool

60

What condition does trypanosoma cruzi cause?

chagas disease

61

What is the major reservoir for entamoeba histolytica?

water and food

62

What is the major reservoir for Cryptosporidium parvum?

animals

63

How is Plasmodium species transmitted?

bite of female anopheles mosquito