Fungi-Chapter 32 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fungi-Chapter 32 Deck (53):
1

as many as 1.5 million species, single celled or multicellular, sexual or asexual, extract and absorb nutrients from surroundings, last shared a common ancestor with animalia 460MYA

Fungi

2

people who study fungi

mycologists

3

7 true (monophyletic) groups (phlya), 1 problematic group

fungal diversity

4

multicellular fungi consist of long, slender filaments, can be continuous or divided by septa, cytoplasm flows throughout hyphae (allows for rapid growth in good conditions)

hyphae

5

a mass of connected hyphae, grows through and digests the substrate

mycelium

6

cell walls are formed of polysaccharides such as __________, also found in the exoskeletons of arthropods

chitin

7

hyphae cells make exact copes of themselves in a process called ___________

mitosis

8

haploid

1n, only one copy of chromosome

9

diploid

2n, two copies of the chromosome

10

monokaryotic (1n or 2n)

one nucleus in one cell

11

dikaryotic (1n+1n)

two nuclei in one cell

12

two haploid cells can fuse together to form a dikaryotic cell in a process called __________

fertilization

13

the haploid nuclei may then fuse together to form a diploid nucleus in a process called ____________

karyogamy

14

a diploid nucleus can divide into haploid nuclei in a process called __________

meiosis

15

What is the normal fungal life cycle?

(1) haploid
(2) dikaryotic
(3) diploid

16

asexual reproduction in fungi

mitosis

17

majority of life fungal life cycle is spent as ___________ or ___________

haploid or dikaryotic

18

most common means of reproduction among fungi, cells dispersed for breeding purposes, form from sexual or asexual process, are ALWAYS haploid, can be transported by animals

spores

19

spores were originally ___________ and were dispersed in a fluid

flagellated

20

fungi obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes into their substrates, they then absorb the organic molecules produced by this _______________

external digestion

21

fungi live _______ their food source, can break down _________ and _____________, some can be ___________

in
cellulose and lignin
carnivorous

22

most closely related ancestral fungi, have flagellated spores, have chitin in their cell walls, life cycle has both haploid and diploid multicellular stages, chytrids

chytridiomycota

23

diseases that is responsible for the worldwide decline in amphibian populations, immunocompromises their skin barrier

chytridiomycosis

24

digest plan biomass in mammalian herbivore rumens (mammal depends on fungi for sufficient calories), spores have multiple flagella

neocallimastigamycota

25

tiny group, form intracellular association with plan roots called arbuscular mycorrhizae, no evidence of sexual reproduction

glomeromycota

26

very diverse, include common bread molds, lack septae, most of their life cycle is haploid

zygomycota

27

hyphae produce specialized sporangia (releases haploid spores)

asexual reproduction

28

hyphae produce specialized gametangia, two haploid gametangia merge to form a diploid zygosporangium, haploid spores are released

sexual reproduction

29

include some of the most familiar fungi, mushrooms, puffballs, and jelly fungi, include plant pathogens such as rusts and smuts

basidiomycota

30

spore germination leads to the production of haploid mycelium, mycelium may fuse results in fertilization, now dikaryotic, basidiocarps form

basidiomycota life cycle

31

dikaryotic basidiocarp has hundreds of ____________ in each gill, club shaped sexual reproductive structure, karyogamy occurs within the basidium and meiosis follows, four haploid basidiospores result

basidia

32

contain about 75% of the known fungi, include bread yeasts, common molds, and penicillum, cup fungi and morels/truffels

ascomycota

33

__________ are unicellular ascomycetes

yeasts (produce asexually by budding)

34

yeasts can ferment carbohydrates as they break down glucose into ___________ and ___________.

ethanol and CO2

35

saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism used to make ____________, _________, and __________.

beer, wine and bread

36

occurs through haploid conidia formed at the end of hyphae, grow new hapolid hyphae

asexual reproduction in ascomycota

37

the ___________ is the spore distributing structure for ascomycota

ascocarp (dikaryotic)

38

asci undergo __________ and eight haploid ascospores result

karyogamy

39

fungi and bacteria are principal decomposers, capable of decomposing cellulose and lignin, have different _________ which indicate relationship with another organism

symbiosis

40

benefit at the expense of their host

pathogens and parasites

41

benefit one partner but do not harm or benefit the other

commensals

42

have relationship that benefit both of the partners

mutualists

43

essential for fungus to survive

obligate symbiosis

44

nonessential but positive

facultative symbiosis

45

live in the intercellular spaces inside plants, protect their hosts by producing toxins, example is the Italian rye plant that battle the aphids

endophytic fungi (mutualistic relationship)

46

are symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, invaded harshest habitats, have pigments

lichens (mutualistic)

47

mutualistic relationship between fungi and plants, different from endophytes because they live in roots, help the plant take up water and get to live within the tough roots

mycorrhizae

48

hyphae penetrate the root cell wall, 70% of mycorrhizal species, fungal partners are glomeromycetes

arbuscular mycorrhizae

49

hyphae surround but do not penetrate the root cells, most hosts are forest trees, fungal partners are mostly basidiomycetes

ectomycorrhizae

50

fungi also have _____________ with animals, ruminant animals host fungi in their gut, example is the Leaf cutter ants

mutual smybioses

51

____________ is the worlds largest organism, infect trees

Armillaria

52

fungi can spoil food products that have been harvested and stored, some fungi secrete ________ that make food poisonous

toxins

53

athlete's foot, nail fungus, candida (vaginal yeast infection), and pneumonia are fungi that cause ______________

human diseases