Respiratory System-Chapter 48 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System-Chapter 48 Deck (37):
1

gas exchange is dependent on ___________. the more the better

surface area

2

gasses diffuse directly through the membrane, high surface area to volume ratio,

single celled organisms

3

in small invertebrates, such as platyhelminthes cnidarians and nematoda, gases can diffuse through the _________ and ________. it is called the __________ cavity

integument
gut
gastrovascular

4

the flattening of the body cavity ______ the surface area

increases

5

the ________ can circulate gases

pseudocoel

6

specialized tissues with high surface area seen in aquatic groups such as molluska and crustacea, water is taken in and circulated through them, gas is exchanged

internal gills

7

seen in echinoderms, protrude into water column and increase SA exposed to water for gas exchange, O2 circulated through the animal via the water vascular system

papulae

8

openings in the exoskeleton of hexapoda that lead into ducts of the trachea

spiracles

9

trachea divides into _________, more SA delivers air directly to the tissues

tracheoles

10

in amphibians, thin moist skin with lots of ________ allows for gas exchange. this process is called ________________

capillaries
cutaneous respiration

11

aquatic vertebrates have structures that function similarly to invertebrate gills, derived from __________ found in all chordates at one time

pharyngeal slits

12

in aquatic vertebrates there are several _______ on each side of an animal's head

gill arch

13

each gill arch is composed of two rows of ________ which consist of ___________

gill filaments
lamellae

14

found in immature fish and amphibians, outside the body

external gills

15

What are 2 disadvantages of external gills?

must be constantly move to ensure oxygen rich fresh water, easily damaged

16

in aquatic vertebrates, the water moves into the mouth, through the gills and out of the fish through the _________ or gill cover

operculum

17

as seen in aquatic vertebrates, blood flows opposite to direction of water movement, maximizes oxygenation of blood

countercurrent flow

18

Why were gills replaced in terrestrial vertebrates?

(1) air is less supportive than water
(2) water evaporates

19

minimizes evaporation by moving air through a branched tubular passage, usually have extensive internal surface area for gas exchange

lung

20

frogs push or squeeze air into their lungs by creating a positive pressure in the buccal cavity

positive pressure breathing

21

seen in reptiles and mammals, expansion of thoracic cage by muscular contraction, create empty space, air rushes into lungs to fill empty space

negative pressure breathing

22

in and out the same direction

two directional flow

23

inhaled air passes through the __________, bifurcates into the right and left ________, enter each lung and subdivide into _________

trachea
bronchi
bronchioles

24

lungs of mammals are packed with millions of __________

alveoli

25

What events happen during inhalation?

-rib cage expands
-diaphragm contracts
-negative pressure draws air into lungs

26

What events happen during exhalation?

-elastic fibers collapse rib cage
-diaphragm relaxes
-positive pressure created

27

air circulates within the body, as seen in archosaurs, results in complete elimination of "used" air

unidirectional breathing

28

in unidirectional breathing, O2 is absorbed through one way tubes called _________ , the action of ______________ allow this kind of breathing

parabronchi
anterior and posterior sacs

29

describe cycle 1 of unidirectional breathing

inhaled air is drawn from the trachea into the posterior air sacs and exhaled into the lungs

30

describe cycle 2 of unidirectional breathing

air is drawn from the lungs into anterior air sacs and exhaled through the trachea

31

during unidirectional breathing....

...deoxygenated air does not need to be exhaled before oxygenated air can be inhaled

32

gas exchange is driven by __________

partial pressures

33

arteries have a relatively ___ CO2 concentration while veins have a relatively ___ CO2 concentration

low
high

34

how do neurons change with CO2 concentration?

-more CO2 increases carbonic acid production
-lowers blood pH
-stimulation of chemosensitive neurons

35

consists of 4 polypeptide chains, each chain consists of a heme group, each heme group has an iron atom than can bind O2

hemoglobin

36

CO2 moves from the cells into the blood, combines with water to form H+ and HCO3-

transport of CO2

37

when blood passes through the pulmonary capillaries, the reaction is reversed, as the CO2 gas is _________

exhaled