Etiology of Colibacillosis
Collibacillosis is a common cause of diarrhea in pigs less than a _____ of age.
In colibacillosis, pathogenic strains adhere to the intestines by means of _____
Fimbrial antigens associated with Colibacillosis:
F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, and F41
With Colibacillosis - the presence of receptors on the pigs enterocytes for the _____ fimbria are genetically controlled.
In Colibacillosis, pathogenic strains produce ______ which cause secretion of fluid.
Enterotoxins are classified as heat _____ (LT) or heat _____ (STa, STb).
Enterotoxins cause hypersecretion of: ____, ____ and ______ into the gut lumen.
water, bicarbonate, and sodium
Enterotoxin will result in diarrhea, dehydration, _____ (acidosis or alkalosis), and _____ (hypokalemia or hyperkalemia)
On post-mortem examination in a pig infected with Colibacillosis, should you see chyle going through mesentery?
Yes - because E. coli does not cuase malabsorptive diarrhea.
Treatment and control of Colibacillosis includes antibiotics, but what can we do the sow prefarrowing to protect neonates?
Stimulate immunity of the sow by vaccinating pre-farrowing, so that she will have anti-K88 anitbody in the colustrum - passing it to the neonate.
Etiology of Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)
While TGE causes diarrhea like collibacillosus, what other clinical sign is common with TGE infection, but not E. coli?
What kind of diarrhea does TGE produce?
TGE virus destroys the lining of the small intestine, leading to ____ _____.
Severity of TGE varies with the herd immunity. Please explain.
In a naive herd, where sows were never exposed to the virus, they cannot pass on antibodies to the virus in their colustrum to neonates. The mortality rate is very high in neonates from a naive herd. If the sows have been exposed however, neonates will benefit from passive immunity and mortality will decrease.
What can you do to control TGE in a naive herd?
Sacrifice a sick neonate, make a slurry of it's intestines rich with virus, and feed to the sow's during gestation, preferentially 2 or weeks prior to farrowing.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) had not been reported in the US prior to May, _____.
PED causes high morbidity and high mortality in young pigs. It resembles ____ in clinical presentation, but negative to ____ diagnostic tests. And therefore, determined to be PEDV.
Resembles TGE, negative to TGEV diagnostic tests
Etiology of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED)
Coronavirus (similar but distinct from TGEV)
The clinical signs of PED include diarrhea and vomiting, and in acute outbreaks, what age of swine get severe diarrhea? What age will result in high mortality?
Severe diarrhea in all ages of swine; high mortality in preweaned piglets
What is the most common rought of transmission in PED?
Infected pigs shed PED virus for how longs?
PED is highly contagious (small infective dose). Therefore, it is easily transmitted via fomites. True or False.
While it is unkown how PED virus entered the US, where do we think that it came from?
There is no effective treatment for PED. Expect close to 100% mortality in ______ pigs, for ______ weeks after the outbreak.
pre-weaning, 2-4 weeks
Prevention and control of PED - if herd is negaive - practice strict _______.
Biosecurity (additions from negative herds, limit fomite exposures)
Prevention and control in a PED positive herd:
Load, close, expose
- Bring in needed replacement breeding stock
- Close herd to new additions
- Feedback infectious materials to sow herd
- Do not cross-foster to equalize the body weights of piglets (small piglets together on one sow, large piglets together on one sow = sorting by size, done to make the litterl even) but DO cross-foster to make sure that all piglets have a teat to suckle on.
- Euthanize sick pigs
The Rotavirus is similar to TGE except ___ common and ___ severe.
More common, and less severe
Rotavirus is a ubiquitous virus in most species. True or False.
Rotavirus is often a component of post-______ diarrheas.
Etiology of Coccidiosis
Protozoa - Isospora suis
In coccidiosis, diarrhea occurs after ___ days incubation/infection.
What kind of diarrhea does Coccidiosis cause?
Malabsorptive diarrhea --> damanges lining of the small intestine
Can you rule out Cocciodiosis in a pig with diarrhea that is less than 7 days old?
Most likely yes - becuase Coccidiosis takes 7-10 days to cause enough damage to the small instestine to cause diarrhea.
Is there an approved coccidiostat/other treatments available?
No approved treatments available in pigs.
The best control of coccidiosis as this point is:
Cleaning and sanitation
Can you give extra-label drugs in feed?
NO!! Strictly prohibited!
Why should we not give ionophores (monensin, etc) to pigs?
- They are not approved - so cannot use in feed
- Also cardiotoxic
Etiology of Clostridial Enteritis
Clostridium perfringens type C and type A
Clostridial enteritis produces what kind of diarrhea?
Hemorrhagic - causes hemorrhage and necrosis in the intestine
Pencillin can be given to control Clostridial enteritis, but must be given before _____ to be effective.
Once clinical signs appear with Clostridial enteritis, are there any treatments available?
Not really - piglets may die quickly or waste away. Once you get necrosis of the intestine - you can't really fix this.
Best time to vaccinate the sows against clostridial enteritis?
Several weeks before farrowing
Feeding _______ to sows, results in prophylactic effect against clostridial enteritis in baby.
Age affected Pigs:
- E. Coli:
- Cocciodiosis - not less than 7 days
- Rotavirus - more common near weaning
- E. coli - most common in pigs < 5 days
- TGE - younger pigs - epidemic form (older pigs - endemic form)
Clinical signs of vomiting is most commonly associated with these two diseases:
TGE and PED
Blood in feces strongly suggestive of ______
If fecal pH is greater than or equal to 8, this is most likely due to a ____ diarrhea from ______ infection.
What are signs of adequate absorption in face of diarrhea
Chyle in mesenteric lymphatics
Think these two agents when necrosis of intestines occurs:
Chronic Coccidiosis or Clostridium
Definitive diagnosis of E. coli
Culture and typing
Definitive diagnosis for rotavirus and TGE
PCR, FA, EM for both; serology for TGE
Definitive diagnosis for coccidiosis:
Strongyloides ransomi is a disease of the neonate pig, and is more common in _____ US.
Strongyloides ransomi is associated with _____________________, in preweaned pigs
Stunting, unthriftiness and diarrhea
Strongyloides ransomi - infective larva are passed through the _____.
Postweaning scours is usually more than one etiology. Therefore it is more productive to aproach the problem from both diseases (antimicrobials and vaccins) and weaning management point of view. True or False.