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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Diseases in Neonates Deck (58):
1

Etiology of Colibacillosis

E. coli

2

Collibacillosis is a common cause of diarrhea in pigs less than a _____ of age.

week

3

In colibacillosis, pathogenic strains adhere to the intestines by means of _____

Fimbria (pili)

4

Fimbrial antigens associated with Colibacillosis:

F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, and F41

5

With Colibacillosis - the presence of receptors on the pigs enterocytes for the _____ fimbria are genetically controlled.

K88

6

In Colibacillosis, pathogenic strains produce ______ which cause secretion of fluid. 

Enterotoxins 

7

Enterotoxins are classified as heat _____ (LT) or heat _____ (STa, STb).

labile, stable 

8

Enterotoxins cause hypersecretion of: ____, ____ and ______ into the gut lumen. 

water, bicarbonate, and sodium 

9

Enterotoxin will result in diarrhea, dehydration, _____ (acidosis or alkalosis), and _____ (hypokalemia or hyperkalemia)

acidosis, hyperkalemia 

10

On post-mortem examination in a pig infected with Colibacillosis, should you see chyle going through mesentery?

Yes - because E. coli does not cuase malabsorptive diarrhea. 

11

Treatment and control of Colibacillosis includes antibiotics, but what can we do the sow prefarrowing to protect neonates?

Stimulate immunity of the sow by vaccinating pre-farrowing, so that she will have anti-K88 anitbody in the colustrum - passing it to the neonate. 

12

Etiology of Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)

Coronavirus

13

While TGE causes diarrhea like collibacillosus, what other clinical sign is common with TGE infection, but not E. coli?

Vomiting

14

What kind of diarrhea does TGE produce?

Malabsorptive

15

TGE virus destroys the lining of the small intestine, leading to ____ _____.

Villus atrophy

16

Severity of TGE varies with the herd immunity. Please explain.

In a naive herd, where sows were never exposed to the virus, they cannot pass on antibodies to the virus in their colustrum to neonates. The mortality rate is very high in neonates from a naive herd. If the sows have been exposed however, neonates will benefit from passive immunity and mortality will decrease.

17

What can you do to control TGE in a naive herd?

Sacrifice a sick neonate, make a slurry of it's intestines rich with virus, and feed to the sow's during gestation, preferentially 2 or weeks prior to farrowing. 

18

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) had not been reported in the US prior to May, _____.

2013

19

PED causes high morbidity and high mortality in young pigs. It resembles ____ in clinical presentation, but negative to ____ diagnostic tests. And therefore, determined to be PEDV.

Resembles TGE, negative to TGEV diagnostic tests

20

Etiology of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED)

Coronavirus (similar but distinct from TGEV)

21

The clinical signs of PED include diarrhea and vomiting, and in acute outbreaks, what age of swine get severe diarrhea? What age will result in high mortality?

Severe diarrhea in all ages of swine; high mortality in preweaned piglets

22

What is the most common rought of transmission in PED?

Fecal-oral transmission

23

Infected pigs shed PED virus for how longs?

3-4 weeks

24

PED is highly contagious (small infective dose). Therefore, it is easily transmitted via fomites. True or False.

True

25

While it is unkown how PED virus entered the US, where do we think that it came from?

China

26

There is no effective treatment for PED. Expect close to 100% mortality in ______ pigs, for ______ weeks after the outbreak.

 pre-weaning, 2-4 weeks

27

Prevention and control of PED - if herd is negaive - practice strict _______.

Biosecurity (additions from negative herds, limit fomite exposures)

28

Prevention and control in a PED positive herd:

Load, close, expose

  • Bring in needed replacement breeding stock
  • Close herd to new additions
  • Feedback infectious materials to sow herd

McREBEL

  • Do not cross-foster to equalize the body weights of piglets (small piglets together on one sow, large piglets together on one sow = sorting by size, done to make the litterl even) but DO cross-foster to make sure that all piglets have a teat to suckle on.
  • Euthanize sick pigs

29

The Rotavirus is similar to TGE except ___ common and ___ severe.

More common, and less severe

30

Rotavirus is a ubiquitous virus in most species. True or False.

True

31

Rotavirus is often a component of post-______ diarrheas.

Weaning

32

Etiology of Coccidiosis 

Protozoa - Isospora suis

33

In coccidiosis, diarrhea occurs after ___ days incubation/infection.

7 days

34

What kind of diarrhea does Coccidiosis cause?

Malabsorptive diarrhea --> damanges lining of the small intestine

35

Can you rule out Cocciodiosis in a pig with diarrhea that is less than 7 days old?

Most likely yes - becuase Coccidiosis takes 7-10 days to cause enough damage to the small instestine to cause diarrhea.

36

Is there an approved coccidiostat/other treatments available?

No approved treatments available in pigs.

37

The best control of coccidiosis as this point is:

Cleaning and sanitation 

38

Can you give extra-label drugs in feed?

NO!! Strictly prohibited!

39

Why should we not give ionophores (monensin, etc) to pigs?

  • They are not approved - so cannot use in feed 
  • Also cardiotoxic

40

Etiology of Clostridial Enteritis 

Clostridium perfringens type C and type A

Clostridium difficile

41

Clostridial enteritis produces what kind of diarrhea?

Hemorrhagic - causes hemorrhage and necrosis in the intestine

42

Pencillin can be given to control Clostridial enteritis, but must be given before _____ to be effective. 

clinical signs

43

Once clinical signs appear with Clostridial enteritis, are there any treatments available?

Not really - piglets may die quickly or waste away. Once you get necrosis of the intestine - you can't really fix this.

44

Best time to vaccinate the sows against clostridial enteritis?

Several weeks before farrowing

45

Feeding _______ to sows, results in prophylactic effect against clostridial enteritis in baby.

bacitracin (BMD)

46

Age affected Pigs:

  • Cocciodiosis:
  • Rotavirus:
  • E. Coli:
  • TGE:

  • Cocciodiosis - not less than 7 days
  • Rotavirus - more common near weaning
  • E. coli - most common in pigs < 5 days
  • TGE - younger pigs - epidemic form (older pigs - endemic form)

47

Clinical signs of vomiting is most commonly associated with these two diseases:

TGE and PED

48

Blood in feces strongly suggestive of ______

Clostridial Enteritis 

49

If fecal pH is greater than or equal to 8, this is most likely due to a ____ diarrhea from ______ infection.

secretory, colibacillosis

50

What are signs of adequate absorption in face of diarrhea

Chyle in mesenteric lymphatics

51

Think these two agents when necrosis of intestines occurs:

Chronic Coccidiosis or Clostridium

52

Definitive diagnosis of E. coli

Culture and typing

53

Definitive diagnosis for rotavirus and TGE

PCR, FA, EM for both; serology for TGE

54

Definitive diagnosis for coccidiosis:

 

Impression smears

55

Strongyloides ransomi is a disease of the neonate pig, and is more common in _____ US.

Southeastern

56

Strongyloides ransomi is associated with _____________________, in preweaned pigs

Stunting, unthriftiness and diarrhea

57

Strongyloides ransomi - infective larva are passed through the _____.

Colustrum

58

Postweaning scours is usually more than one etiology. Therefore it is more productive to aproach the problem from both diseases (antimicrobials and vaccins) and weaning management point of view. True or False.

True