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Flashcards in Reproductive Management Deck (47):
1

Gestation length 

112 - 116 days (avg = 114 days)

3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days

2

Is there variability between gestational lengths in swine?

NO - not much variability at all!

3

Weaning to estrus interval 

5-7 days

4

First estrus in gilts occurs:

6-8 months

5

Estrus cycle length 

18-24 days (avg = 21 days)

6

Duration of estrus

2-3 days

7

Sows are anestrus during lactation. True or false.

True.

8

Lactation length

Variable - usually 14 - 28 days (2-4 weeks)

9

Estrus detection:

  • Boar exposure
  • Behavior of female - back pressure test
  • Physical signs - reddened, swollen vulva

10

Can we freeze boar semen for AI?

No, but we can cool it for a max of a week

11

For mating, we want at least __ matings at ___ hour intervals during an estres (one service).

2 matings, 24 hour intervals

12

With natural mating, make sure there is a ______ floor surface.

Non-slip

13

Genetic sources - board - usually selected based on _____ quality. And ar eusually purchased from ______ suppliers.

Carcass; seedstock

14

Genetic sources - females - usually selected based on both _____ quality and _____ traits.

carcass, maternal

15

It is more economically advantageous to purchase breeding females from seedstock supplier, versus saving back replacement gilts from finisher. True or False.

True

16

Swine return to estrus ___ to ___ days post breeding.

18-24 days

17

If sow is bred twice in a 24 hour period of time, there is an ___% chance it will be successful. 

80-85%

18

Best pregnancy diagnosis (98% accuracy):

does the sow return to estrus - 18-24 days post breeding

19

An ultrasound can be performed for a pregnancy diagnosis ___ to ___ days post breeding and has a ___ to ____ accuracy rate.

28-80 days

65-95%

20

To confirm a pregnancy diagnosis after you determine the sow has not returned to estrus, you can perform an _______.

ultrasound

21

Failure of the female to show estrus = 

anestrus

22

A full bladder or a pyometra can cause false-_______ for pregnancy on ultrasounds. 

positive

23

Boar infertility, poor timing of breeding, occlusion of hte oviduct and other anatomic abnormalities can lead to failure of ______.

Fertilization

24

Less than 4 viable emrbyos, infection, endometritis, and high enviornmental tempratures can cause ______ in respect to the embryo.

Early embryonic death (<12 days)

25

If not pregnant, the sow should return to estrus in:

18-24 days

26

Two types of gestation housing options available:

Individual stalls (crates) and Group housing (pens)

27

This type of gestation results in higher incidence of sterotypical behaviors like bar biting.

Individual stalls (crates)

28

This type of gestation housing has negative public and customer perceptions and is even illegal in some areas.

Individual stalls (crates)

29

This type of gestation housing results in slightly higher preimplantation pregnancy loss.

Group housing (pens)

30

Pregnancy, weak physical/behavioral manifestastions of estrus, cystic ovaries, mycotoxins (esp. zearalenone), nutrition and genetics can all result in:

Anestrus

31

Seasonal anestrus and low conception rate occurs in late _____ and early ____.

Late summer and early fall 

32

Early embryonic death after 12 days, maternal recognition of pregnancy has occured, and there must be another cause of death. True or False.

True.

33

Excessive energy intake can cause early emrbyonic death between 12-30 days. True or False.

 

True

34

Expulsion of fetuses (dead or non-viable) prior to a normal term of pregnancy (<110 days)

Abortion

35

Leptosprisosis, PRRS, Pseudorabies (rare), Brucellosis (rare), septicemic diseases, and toxins can all cause:

Abortion

36

Positive diagnosis of a specific cause is achieved in only ___% of porcine abortoin cases.

30

37

Pigs born dead or found dead shortly after birth are known as _______.

Stillbirths

38

Most stillbirths occur directly from ____ during parturition. The____ the parturition, the more likely a pig is to be a stillborn. 

anorexia; longer

39

Increase in sow age (parity), any diseases that weaken the pig, carbon monoxide poisoning, long partrition period all increase the incidence of ______.

Stillbirths

40

Fetal hemoglobin has _______ (higher or lower) affinity for carbon monoxide. Therefore, the fetus will die _____ (sooner or later) than the sow.

Higher; sooner

41

Mummies usually result from the death of part of a litter between gestational ages of ___ and ____ days.

30; 70

42

Mummies are most typical of infection with ______.

Porcine Parvovirus

43

Total pigs born per litter is positively influenced by:

  • Parity
  • Previous lactation length - the longer the lacatation length, the more pigs born per litter
  • Multiple matings 
  • Maternal genetics - +/-
  • Nutrition - +/-

44

Frequency of boar usage ____ impacts total pigs born per litter.

negatively 

45

_______ days are defined as a day when the female is not gestating or lactating.

Nonproductive days (NPD)

46

Targets can vary, but generally there is ___-____ non-productive days per year.

30-50

47

Two significant components of NPD:

  • Wean to service interval
  • Returns to service