112 - 116 days (avg = 114 days)
3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days
Is there variability between gestational lengths in swine?
NO - not much variability at all!
Weaning to estrus interval
First estrus in gilts occurs:
Estrus cycle length
18-24 days (avg = 21 days)
Duration of estrus
Sows are anestrus during lactation. True or false.
Variable - usually 14 - 28 days (2-4 weeks)
- Boar exposure
- Behavior of female - back pressure test
- Physical signs - reddened, swollen vulva
Can we freeze boar semen for AI?
No, but we can cool it for a max of a week
For mating, we want at least __ matings at ___ hour intervals during an estres (one service).
2 matings, 24 hour intervals
With natural mating, make sure there is a ______ floor surface.
Genetic sources - board - usually selected based on _____ quality. And ar eusually purchased from ______ suppliers.
Genetic sources - females - usually selected based on both _____ quality and _____ traits.
It is more economically advantageous to purchase breeding females from seedstock supplier, versus saving back replacement gilts from finisher. True or False.
Swine return to estrus ___ to ___ days post breeding.
If sow is bred twice in a 24 hour period of time, there is an ___% chance it will be successful.
Best pregnancy diagnosis (98% accuracy):
does the sow return to estrus - 18-24 days post breeding
An ultrasound can be performed for a pregnancy diagnosis ___ to ___ days post breeding and has a ___ to ____ accuracy rate.
To confirm a pregnancy diagnosis after you determine the sow has not returned to estrus, you can perform an _______.
Failure of the female to show estrus =
A full bladder or a pyometra can cause false-_______ for pregnancy on ultrasounds.
Boar infertility, poor timing of breeding, occlusion of hte oviduct and other anatomic abnormalities can lead to failure of ______.
Less than 4 viable emrbyos, infection, endometritis, and high enviornmental tempratures can cause ______ in respect to the embryo.
Early embryonic death (<12 days)
If not pregnant, the sow should return to estrus in:
Two types of gestation housing options available:
Individual stalls (crates) and Group housing (pens)
This type of gestation results in higher incidence of sterotypical behaviors like bar biting.
Individual stalls (crates)
This type of gestation housing has negative public and customer perceptions and is even illegal in some areas.
Individual stalls (crates)
This type of gestation housing results in slightly higher preimplantation pregnancy loss.
Group housing (pens)
Pregnancy, weak physical/behavioral manifestastions of estrus, cystic ovaries, mycotoxins (esp. zearalenone), nutrition and genetics can all result in:
Seasonal anestrus and low conception rate occurs in late _____ and early ____.
Late summer and early fall
Early embryonic death after 12 days, maternal recognition of pregnancy has occured, and there must be another cause of death. True or False.
Excessive energy intake can cause early emrbyonic death between 12-30 days. True or False.
Expulsion of fetuses (dead or non-viable) prior to a normal term of pregnancy (<110 days)
Leptosprisosis, PRRS, Pseudorabies (rare), Brucellosis (rare), septicemic diseases, and toxins can all cause:
Positive diagnosis of a specific cause is achieved in only ___% of porcine abortoin cases.
Pigs born dead or found dead shortly after birth are known as _______.
Most stillbirths occur directly from ____ during parturition. The____ the parturition, the more likely a pig is to be a stillborn.
Increase in sow age (parity), any diseases that weaken the pig, carbon monoxide poisoning, long partrition period all increase the incidence of ______.
Fetal hemoglobin has _______ (higher or lower) affinity for carbon monoxide. Therefore, the fetus will die _____ (sooner or later) than the sow.
Mummies usually result from the death of part of a litter between gestational ages of ___ and ____ days.
Mummies are most typical of infection with ______.
Total pigs born per litter is positively influenced by:
- Previous lactation length - the longer the lacatation length, the more pigs born per litter
- Multiple matings
- Maternal genetics - +/-
- Nutrition - +/-
Frequency of boar usage ____ impacts total pigs born per litter.
_______ days are defined as a day when the female is not gestating or lactating.
Nonproductive days (NPD)
Targets can vary, but generally there is ___-____ non-productive days per year.
Two significant components of NPD: