Etiology of Enteric Salmonellosis
Salmonella typhimurium or choleraesuis
Salmonella choleraesuis is _____ to swine and tends to cause ______ disease. Salmonella typhimurium is _______ to swine, and tends to cause ______.
- host-adapted to swine; septicemic disease
- Non-host adapted; enterocolitis
How is enteric salmonellosis transmitted?
All carriers of eteric salmonellosis are symptomatic. True or False.
False - disease can cause chronic/asymptomatic carriers
Clinical signs of enteric Salmonellosis
- Vary in severity
- Yellowish diarrhea, with or without blood and mucus
- Fever, inappetence, wasting
Enteric Salmonellosis affects which two parts of the intestines?
Ileum and Large Intestine
Enteric Salmonellosis has a ____-dependent response to exposure.
Classic pathological lesions of enteric salmonellosis
- Necrosis, thickening, fibrin, plus/minus hemorrhage
- Mesenteric lymphadenopathy
- "Button ulcers" and paratyphoid nodules in the liver
- Rectal strictures and megacolon
Ileitis, Proliferative enteritis (ileitis), Porcine inestineal adenomatosis, "garden hose gut" are all synonyms for:
Etiology of Proliferative Enteropathy
Lawsonia intracelullaris is an obligate _____ organisms, and ______ (can or cannot) be grown on artificial media (outside the host).
Lawsonia intracellularis is almost always in the gut of pigs. True or False.
Proliferative enteropathy causes hemorrhage and ____ of the intestine, primarily the ____.
Acute clinical signs of proliferative enteropathy:
Dark, hemorrhagic diarrhea, pallor, moderate mortality
Clinical signs of chronic proliferative enteropathy:
Intermittent diarrhea, wasting
What makes Salmonella different from Proliferative Enteropathy based on pathology?
Salmonellosis affects small AND large intestine; whereas proliferative enteropathy only affects the small intestine, prmarily the ileum
Is a culture possible to diagnose proliferative enteropathy?
No, becuase L. intracellularis cannot be grown outside the host!
4 Treatments that seem to be efficacious for preventing and reducing the pathology due to L. intracellularis:
- Bacitracin (BMD)
The vaccine for proliferative enteropathy works great. The vaccine is a MLV administered through _____. Therefore, you cannot have antimicrobials in the ____ during vaccine administration.
Etiology of Swine Dysentery
Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae - a spirochete
Epidemiology of Swine Dysentery
Less common in recent years due to successful control and eradication efforts, however it still occurs sporadically.
Main transmission of swine dysentery:
Mice can serve as a _____ vector in swine dysentery.
Can we asymptomatic carriers in swine dysentery?
Clinical signs of swine dysentery:
- Severe mucohemorrhagic diarrhea
- High morbidity
- Moderate mortality
Pathology of swine dysentery
- Mucohemorrhagic colitis and typhlitis
- Lesions limited to the large intestine
The blood in diarrhea produced with Swine Dysentery is often ____ red, because Swine Dysentery is limited to the large intestin, unlike Proliferative Enteropathy, that is ____ red becuase it is limited to the small intestine.
Most common diagnosis of Swine Dysentery
Not definitive, but a fecal sample can be used for diagnosis, with a _______ stain in order to visualize spirochetes.
Victoria Blue 4-R stain
Swine dysentery is responsive to these three medications:
Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Carbadox
Eradication of swine dysentery is possible and desirable, which includes depopulation, repopulation, medication, and segregated ____ _____ (SEW).
segregated early weaning
Is a vaccine available for Swine Dysentery?
No, a vaccine was approved but is no longer available becuase the efficacy was poor.
Etiology of Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis
Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis is similar in most respects to swine dysentery, except that disease is much _____ (milder or stronger).
If we see spirochetes with a victorian blue stain on a fecal sample, which two organisms can it be:
Swine dysnetery - Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis - Brachyspira pilisocoli
PCR to distinguish between the two
Etiology of whipworms
Epidemiology of Whipworms
More common in outdoor reared swine (dirt lots)
Clinical signs of whipworms are similar to:
Swine Dysentery (mucohemorrhagic diarrhea)
Pathology of whipworms
Hemorrhagic colitis and typhlitis visible parasites
Red blood and mucus is suggestive of:
swine dysentery or whip worms
Dark, digested blood is suggestive of:
Rectal strictures and +/- blood are associted with:
TGE is not bloody and is often accompanied with vomiting. True or False.
Lesions are limited to what areas of the intestines with dysentery?
Large intestine and cecum only
Salmonella lesions are limited to what parts of the intestine?
Large and small intestine
Proliferative enteropathy - lesions are limited to what parts of the intestines?
Primarily ileum, some proximal large intestine
Button ulcers (focal colonic necrosis) and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes are suggestive of ________.
Carbadox has been shown to have curative/prophylactic effects on:
Salmonella, dysnetery, ileitis
drug of choice for proliferative ileitis:
Three feed/water additives that may have curative or prophylactic effects on swine dysentery:
Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Carbadox
Neomycin can be used to treat/prophylactically treat:
What feed/water additive is effective against whipworms:
The vaccination for Lawsonia is administered via _______. Is it efficacious?
drinking water; good efficacy reports
Are salmonella vaccines efficacious?
The modern vaccines have relatively good efficacy.
Segregated early weaning may break transmission of _______ from breeding herd to grow-finish. SEW will NOT prevent transmission of ______ or _____.
- Swine dysentery (brachyspira)
Lawsonia or Salmonella
Gastric ulcers are associated with ____ _____ feed.
Clinical signs of gastric ulcers include anorexia, pallor and ____ feces.
Is there an effective treatment for gastric ulcers?
Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) is a sporadic dissease associated with stress. What may increase the risk for HBS?
Irregular feed intake (i.e., feeders run empty) - very stressful!
Feed antibiotics may have _____ effects for HBS.
Gastric ulcers in pigs more frequently occurs in the ______ part of the stomach. And therefore, may be due to _____ reflux.