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Flashcards in General GI Diseases Deck (61):
1

Etiology of Enteric Salmonellosis 

Salmonella typhimurium or choleraesuis

2

Salmonella choleraesuis is _____ to swine and tends to cause ______ disease. Salmonella typhimurium is _______ to swine, and tends to cause ______.

  • host-adapted to swine; septicemic disease
  • Non-host adapted; enterocolitis 

3

How is enteric salmonellosis transmitted?

Fecal-oral transmission

4

All carriers of eteric salmonellosis are symptomatic. True or False.

False - disease can cause chronic/asymptomatic carriers

5

Clinical signs of enteric Salmonellosis

  • Vary in severity
  • Yellowish diarrhea, with or without blood and mucus
  • Fever, inappetence, wasting

6

Enteric Salmonellosis affects which two parts of the intestines?

Ileum and Large Intestine

7

Enteric Salmonellosis has a ____-dependent response to exposure.

Dose

8

Classic pathological lesions of enteric salmonellosis 

  • Necrosis, thickening, fibrin, plus/minus hemorrhage
  • Mesenteric lymphadenopathy
  • "Button ulcers" and paratyphoid nodules in the liver
  • Rectal strictures and megacolon

9

Ileitis, Proliferative enteritis (ileitis), Porcine inestineal adenomatosis, "garden hose gut" are all synonyms for:

Proliferative enteropathy

10

Etiology of Proliferative Enteropathy

Lawsonia intracellularis 

11

Lawsonia intracelullaris is an obligate _____ organisms, and ______ (can or cannot) be grown on artificial media (outside the host).

intracellular; cannot

12

Lawsonia intracellularis is almost always in the gut of pigs. True or False.

True

13

Proliferative enteropathy causes hemorrhage and ____ of the intestine, primarily the ____.

thickening, ileum

14

Acute clinical signs of proliferative enteropathy:

Dark, hemorrhagic diarrhea, pallor, moderate mortality

15

Clinical signs of chronic proliferative enteropathy:

Intermittent diarrhea, wasting

16

What makes Salmonella different from Proliferative Enteropathy based on pathology?

Salmonellosis affects small AND large intestine; whereas proliferative enteropathy only affects the small intestine, prmarily the ileum

17

Is a culture possible to diagnose proliferative enteropathy?

No, becuase L. intracellularis cannot be grown outside the host!

18

4 Treatments that seem to be efficacious for preventing and reducing the pathology due to L. intracellularis:

  • Tylosin
  • Lincomycin
  • Tiamulin
  • Bacitracin (BMD)

19

The vaccine for proliferative enteropathy works great. The vaccine is a MLV administered through _____. Therefore, you cannot have antimicrobials in the ____ during vaccine administration.

Water

20

Etiology of Swine Dysentery

Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae - a spirochete

21

Epidemiology of Swine Dysentery

Less common in recent years due to successful control and eradication efforts, however it still occurs sporadically. 

22

Main transmission of swine dysentery:

Fecal-oral

23

Mice can serve as a _____ vector in swine dysentery.

biological

24

Can we asymptomatic carriers in swine dysentery?

Yes

25

Clinical signs of swine dysentery:

  • Severe mucohemorrhagic diarrhea
  • High morbidity
  • Moderate mortality

26

Pathology of swine dysentery

  • Mucohemorrhagic colitis and typhlitis
  • Lesions limited to the large intestine

27

The blood in diarrhea produced with Swine Dysentery is often ____ red, because Swine Dysentery is limited to the large intestin, unlike Proliferative Enteropathy, that is ____ red becuase it is limited to the small intestine.

Bright; Dark

28

Most common diagnosis of Swine Dysentery

PCR

29

Not definitive, but a fecal sample can be used for diagnosis, with a _______ stain in order to visualize spirochetes.

Victoria Blue 4-R stain

30

Swine dysentery is responsive to these three medications:

Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Carbadox

31

Eradication of swine dysentery is possible and desirable, which includes depopulation, repopulation, medication, and segregated ____ _____ (SEW).

segregated early weaning

32

Is a vaccine available for Swine Dysentery?

No, a vaccine was approved but is no longer available becuase the efficacy was poor.

33

Etiology of Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis

Barchyspira pilisicoli 

34

Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis is similar in most respects to swine dysentery, except that disease is much _____ (milder or stronger).

Milder

35

If we see spirochetes with a victorian blue stain on a fecal sample, which two organisms can it be:

Swine dysnetery - Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis - Brachyspira pilisocoli

PCR to distinguish between the two

36

Etiology of whipworms

Trichuris suis

37

Epidemiology of Whipworms

More common in outdoor reared swine (dirt lots)

38

Clinical signs of whipworms are similar to:

Swine Dysentery (mucohemorrhagic diarrhea)

39

Pathology of whipworms

Hemorrhagic colitis and typhlitis visible parasites

40

Red blood and mucus is suggestive of:

swine dysentery or whip worms

41

Dark, digested blood is suggestive of:

proliferative enteropathy

42

Rectal strictures and +/- blood are associted with:

Salmonellosis

43

TGE is not bloody and is often accompanied with vomiting. True or False.

True.

44

Lesions are limited to what areas of the intestines with dysentery?

Large intestine and cecum only

45

Salmonella lesions are limited to what parts of the intestine?

Large and small intestine

46

Proliferative enteropathy - lesions are limited to what parts of the intestines?

Primarily ileum, some proximal large intestine

47

Button ulcers (focal colonic necrosis) and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes are suggestive of ________.

Salmonellosis

48

Carbadox has been shown to have curative/prophylactic effects on:

Salmonella, dysnetery, ileitis

49

drug of choice for proliferative ileitis:

tylosin

50

Three feed/water additives that may have curative or prophylactic effects on swine dysentery:

Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Carbadox

51

Neomycin can be used to treat/prophylactically treat:

Salmonella, ileitis

52

What feed/water additive is effective against whipworms:

Fenbendazole

53

The vaccination for Lawsonia is administered via _______. Is it efficacious?

drinking water; good efficacy reports

54

Are salmonella vaccines efficacious?

The modern vaccines have relatively good efficacy.

55

Segregated early weaning may break transmission of _______ from breeding herd to grow-finish. SEW will NOT prevent transmission of ______ or _____.

  • Swine dysentery (brachyspira)
  • Lawsonia or Salmonella

56

Gastric ulcers are associated with ____ _____ feed.

Finely ground

57

Clinical signs of gastric ulcers include anorexia, pallor and ____ feces.

dark

58

Is there an effective treatment for gastric ulcers?

No

59

Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) is a sporadic dissease associated with stress. What may increase the risk for HBS?

Irregular feed intake (i.e., feeders run empty) - very stressful!

60

Feed antibiotics may have _____ effects for HBS.

prophylactic 

61

Gastric ulcers in pigs more frequently occurs in the ______ part of the stomach. And therefore, may be due to _____ reflux.

esophageal