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HSF - Viscera > Gastrointestinal Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Tract Deck (58):
1

Structure dividing thorax and abdomen

Diaphragm

2

Planes dividing quadrants

Transumbilical plane
Medial plane

3

Muscles of the anterior abdominal wall:
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) External oblique
2) Internal oblique
3) Rectus abdominus
4) Transverse abdominus

4

Muscles of the posterior abdominal wall

1) Psoas major
2) Quadratus lumborum
3) Iliacus

5

Location of psoas major

Deep
Run along the side of lumbar spine

6

Location of quadratus lumborum

Lateral to psoas major
Fill space between T12 and ilial crest

7

Location of iliacus

Interior aspect of ilium and ischeum
Inferior to quadratus lumborum

8

Where does oesophagus begin?

C6

9

Where does the oesophagus pierce the diaphragm?

T10

10

Where does the trachea split into the left and right bronchi?

T4/T5

11

Which side of the stomach does the oesophagus enter?

Right-hand side

12

Number of sphincters in oesophagus

3 (1 anatomical, 2 functional)

13

Location of oesophageal sphincters

1) Anatomical sphincter in pharynx (cervical)
2) Functional sphincter, diaphragmatic
3) Functional sphincter, thoracic, from left bronchus and aortic arch pressing on oesophagus (~T4/T5)

14

Muscle layers of the oesophagus

External longitudinal
Internal circular

15

Quadrant in which the stomach sits

Left upper quadrant

16

Regions of the stomach
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Fundus
2) Cardia
3) Body
4) Pylorus

17

Parts of pylorus:
1)
2)

1) Antrum
2) Canal

18

Which kind of sphincter is the pyloric sphincter?

Anatomical

19

What are rugae?

Folds of the gastric mucosa

20

Name of folds of the gastric mucosa

Rugae

21

Is stomach intra- or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

22

Length of duodenum

~25cm

23

Is the duodenum retro- or intraperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

24

Parts of the duodenum:
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Superior
2) Descending
3) Transverse/ inferior
4) Ascending

25

Location of superior part of duodenum

Anterolateral to L1

26

Location of descending part of duodenum

Runs along the right side of L1 - L3

27

Structures in the descending part of the duodenum

Major duodenal papilla, minor duodenal papilla

28

Location of the major and minor duodenal papillae

Descending part of the duodenum

29

Structures linking to major duodenal papilla

Common bile duct

30

Structures connecting to the common bile duct

Liver (bile)
Pancreas (pancreatic enzymes)

31

Structures linking to minor duodenal papilla

Pancreas

32

Arrangement of major and minor duodenal papillae

Minor superior to major

33

Location of most of the jejunum

Left upper quadrant

34

Location of most of the ileum

Right lower quadrant

35

Is there a clear distinction between the jejunum and ileum?

Ne

36

Proportional length of the jejunum and ileum

Jejunum ~ first 40%
Ileum ~ last 60%

37

Are the jejunum and ileum retro- or intraperitoneal?

intraperitoneal

38

Differences between jejunum and ileum

Jejunum has:
1) Larger diameter
2) Larger muscle folds
3) Thicker wall
4) Is more vascularised

39

What is the difference between jejunum- and ileum-associated mesentary?

More fat in the ileum-associated mesentary

40

Iieo-caecal junciton

Where the large and small intestines join
An anatomical sphincter

41

Caecum

Blind pocket hanging inferior to the ileo-caecal junciton

42

Hepatic flexure

Ninety-degree turn inferior to the liver
Links ascending with transverse colon

43

Splenic flexure

Ninety-degree turn inferior to the spleen
Links transverse with descending colon

44

Sigmoid colon

S-shaped part of the colon, after the descending colon

45

Names of turns in colon

1) Hepatic flexion (or right colic flexure)
2) Splenic flexion (or left colic flexure)

46

Three features that distinguish the large from the small intestine

1) Tenia coli
2) Haustra
3) Omental apendages

47

What are tenia coli?

Incomplete outer longitudinal muscle coat of the large intestine
Three bands

48

What are haustra?

Baggy appearance of large intestine from tenia coli being shorter than the large intestinal wall

49

Which part of the lower intestine is the most mobile?

Transverse colon

50

Is the transverse colon intra- or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

51

Is the descending colon retro- or intraperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

52

Is the signoid colon intra- or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

53

What are omental appendices?

Fatty tags hanging from tenia coli

54

Location of caecum

Right lower quarter

55

Is the appendix intra- or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

56

To what does the appendix attach?

Caecum

57

Where does the appendix attach to the caecum?

Where the three tenia coli join

58

What distinguishes the rectum from the rest of the large intestine?

No tenia coli, haustra, omental appendices