Lower Respiratory Tract Flashcards Preview

HSF - Viscera > Lower Respiratory Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Tract Deck (48):
1

Parts of thoracic cavity
1)
2)
3)

1) Left
2) Right
3) Pulmonary cavity

2

Four parts of the parietal pleura

1) Cervical - top
2) Costal - lateral
3) Mediasteinal - medial
4) Diaphragmatic - bottom

3

What kind of space is the pleural space?

Potential space

4

Pulmonary ligaments

Where the visceral and parietal pleura are continuous
At the hilum of the lung

5

Pleural innervation

Visceral pleura - autonomic innervation

Parietal pleura - Somatic innervation

6

Pain felt in visceral vs parietal pleura

Visceral - Diffuse, poorly localised pain

Parietal - Sharp, localised pain

7

Where does the trachea descend from?

C6

8

Where does the trachea split into the bronchi?

T4, T5

9

Which bronchus is the shorter, more vertical one?

Right

10

In which bronchus do foreign objects normally fall?

Right

11

What is a tracheal ring?

U-shaped cartilaginous rings in the trachea

Closed posteriorally by the trachealis smooth muscle

12

Stages of the bronchial tree

Main bronchus
Lobar bronchus
Segmental bronchus

13

Area supplied by a segmental bronchus

Bronchiopulmonary segment

14

Shape of a bronchiopulmonary segment

Pyramidal
Apex facing the hilum
Base at the lung surface

15

What is a bronchiopulmonary segment?

The smallest functional unit of the lungs

16

What makes bronchiopulmonary segments independent?

Separate blood supply
Separate venous drainage
Supplied independently by segmental bronchus

17

Is the lung a hollow or solid viscus?

Solid

18

How do the left and right lung differ in shape?

Left lung is smaller than right because of the heart

Right lung is shorter and wider than left because of the liver

19

Three surfaces of the lungs

Costal

Mediasteinal

Diaphragmatic

20

Are the lungs completely divided?

No. Incompletely divided

All lobes join at the hilum

21

Surface features of the left lung
1)
2)
3)

1) Cardiac notch
2) Groove for descending aorta
3) Groove for arch of aorta

22

Surface features of the right lung
1)
2)
3)

1) Cardiac notch
2) Groove for azygous vein
3) Groove for oesophagus

23

Lobes of the right lung

Superior lobe
Middle lobe
Inferior lobe

24

Fissures of the right lung

Horizontal fissure
Oblique fissure

25

Where is the inferior of the right lobe largest?

From posteriorally

26

Fissures of the left lung

Oblique fissure

27

Divisions of lung blood supply

Pulmonary arteries and veins

Bronchial arteries and veins

28

Spatial organisation of pulmonary arteries and veins

Left/right pulmonary arteries superior to left/right pulmonary veins

29

Three surfaces of the lungs

Costal

Mediasteinal

Diaphragmatic

30

Are the lungs completely divided?

No. Incompletely divided

All lobes join at the hilum

31

Surface features of the left lung
1)
2)
3)

1) Cardiac notch
2) Groove for descending aorta
3) Groove for arch of aorta

32

Surface features of the right lung
1)
2)
3)

1) Cardiac impression
2) Groove for azygous vein
3) GRoove for oesophagus

33

Lobes of the right lung

Superior lobe
Middle lobe
Inferior lobe

34

Fissures of the right lung

Horizontal fissure
Oblique fissure

35

Where is the inferior of the right lobe largest?

From posteriorally

36

Fissures of the left lung

Oblique fissure

37

Divisions of lung blood supply

Pulmonary arteries and veins

Bronchial arteries and veins

38

Spatial organisation of pulmonary arteries and veins

Left/right pulmonary arteries superior to left/right pulmonary veins

39

Structures at both lung hila
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

1) One pulmonary artery
2) Two pulmonary veins
3) Main bronchus
4) Bronchial vessels
5) Nerves
6) Lymphatics

40

Layout of structures at the right hilum
Superior
Intermediate
Inferior

Superior: Right pulmonary artery, right upper lobe bronchus

Intermediate: Anterior pulmonary vein and bronchus intermedius

Inferior: Lymph nodes and inferior pulmonary vein

41

Layout of structures at the left hilum
Superior
Intermediate
Inferior

Superior: Left pulmonary artery

Intermediate: Left main bronchus, anterior pulmonary vein

Inferior: Inferior pulmonary vein

42

Differences between left and right hila

Two lobar bronchi at right hilum. Only one at left.

In left, the pulmonary artery occupies the most superior position

43

What are the dark-coloured superficial vessels in the lungs?

Lymph vessels, stained black because of carbon in the air

44

Where do the lung superficial lymph vessels lie?

Deep to visceral pleura

45

Where do the deep lung lymph vessels lie?

Along the bronchial tree

46

Lymph nodes drained to by the lungs

Bronchopulmonary nodes (hilar) --> Tracheobronchial nodes --> Bronchomediastinal lymph trunks

47

Which structure supplies innervation to the lungs and visceral pleura?

The pulmonary plexus

48

Which nervous divisions contribute to the pulmonary plexus?

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions