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HSF - Viscera > The Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Heart Deck (56):
1

Cavities in the chest

2 x pleural cavities
Media steinum

2

Location of heart

Within media steinum, in pericardial sac

3

Does the pericardium attach to the diaphragm?

Yes

4

What limits diaphragmatic descent?

The central tendon of the diaphragm attaches to the pericardium

5

Structure of pericardium

Outer fibrous sheath
Serous pericardium lies interior to fibrous sheath
Parietal and visceral serous pericardium

6

Orientation of the heart

Right side lies anterior to left side
Atria lie to the right of ventricles

7

Location of the anterior atrioventricular sulcus

Between right atrium and right ventricle

8

Location of anterior interventricular sulcus

Between right centricle and left ventricle

9

Alternate name for the anterior atrioventricular sulcus

Coronary sulcus

10

Structure of the heart in utero

Foramen ovali is a hole in the sinus venorum
Allows passage of blood from the right atrium to the left atrium

11

What does the foramen ovali become after birth?

Fossa ovalis

12

Why does the foramen ovalii exist in utero?

Baby doesn't breathe, so no point pumping blood to lungs.

13

Features of the right ventricle

All interior wall is grooved (trabeculae carnae)

Area below pulmonary trunk is smooth (comus arteriosus or infundibulum)

Part of trabeculae carnae on each wall (3) projects to the middle of ventricle, joins (forms papillary muscle)

Pulmonary trunk with pulmonary valve

14

Function of papillary muscle

Join with tricuspid valve with tendons called chordae tendinae

15

Features of right atrium

Exterior wall is grooved (musculi pectinati)

Interior wall is smooth (sinus venarum)

Coronary sinus and fossa ovalis on interior wall

Tricuspid valve

16

Left atrium

Completely smooth-walled (except for left atrial appendage, which has ridges)

Has fossa ovalis

Receives 4x pulmonary veins from lungs

17

Left ventricle

Thickest wall

Has trabeculae carnae

BIcuspid/mitral valve

2 papillary muscles connect with mitral valve with chorda tendinae

18

Fibrous skeleton of the heart

Anchors atrial and ventricular muscle masses

Sits between atria and ventricles

Electrically isolates atria and ventricles

19

Features of the fibrous skeleton of the heart

2x trigones - Bicuspid, tricuspid valves

2x coronets - PUlmonary valve, aortic valve (semilunar)

20

How do the atria and ventricles electrically operate?

As a syncitium

21

What do the atrial surface of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves look like?

Smooth

22

What do the ventricular surfaces of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves look like?

Rough, because of chordae tendinae attachments

23

Configuration of aortic and pulmonary valves

Pulmonary valve is closer to edge
Aortic valve closer to centre

24

Role of chordae tendinae

DO NOT open or close valves

Papillary muscles pull on valve cusps via chordae tendinae, hold cusps closed

25

Differences between semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves

3 cusps in semilunar valves

Cusps of semilunar valves attach to blood vessel (aorta, pulmonary trunk)

Semilunar valves do not have attached chordae tendinae

26

Where is the sinoatrial node located?

Right atrium
Top of cristae terminalis
Base of superior vena cava

27

Nerve supply of the ehart

Sympathetic and parasympathetic supply
Cardiac plexus is at the base of the heart

28

How does an electrical impulse travel through the heart?

SA node pacemaker cells generate action potential

Action potential stops at cardiac fibrous skeleton (insulated)

AV node transmits impulse to ventricles (slows impulse slightly)

Impulse travels down bundle of His

Purkinje fibers branch through ventricles

29

Blood vessels of the heart

Coronary arteries and veins

Pulmonary trunk

Aorta

30

Location of pulmonary trunk

Emerges from right ventricle

Splits into left/right arteries

31

Structure of aorta

1st part - Ascending aorta

2nd part - Aortic arch

32

Structure of aortic arch

Arches upwards, posterior, to the left

Ends up on the left-hand side of the vertebral column, becomes the descending thoracic aorta

33

What does the aorta become when it pierces the diaphragm?

The abdominal aorta (from the thoracic aorta)

34

Location of the right coronary artery

Anterior surface of the heart

In atrioventricular groove

35

Area supplied by right coronary artery

Right atrium, right ventricle

Conduction tissue of the AV, SA node

36

Location of the left coronary artery

Posterior side of the heart

Posterior atrioventricular groove

Interventricular groove

37

Do the right and left coronary arteries anastomose?

Yes

In two places

38

Major arteries of the heart

Left/right carotid

Left/right subclavian

39

Number of branches off aortic arch

Three

40

First arteries to branch off the aorta

Coronary arteries

Branch from just after the aortic valve

41

Names of 3 branches form aorta

1 - Brachiocephalic trunk
2 - Left common carotid
3 - Left subclavian

42

Branches from brachiocephalic trunk

Right common carotid
Right subclavian

43

Where do the pulmonary trunks travel in relation to the aortic trunk?

Underneath

44

Area supplied by descending thoracic aorta

Everything above diaphragm

45

Branches from the descending thoracic aorta

Pericardial
Intercostal
Bronchial
Oesophageal

46

Number of branches from the descending thoracic aorta

4

47

Internal jugular veins

Venous equivalent of common carotid arteries

48

Path of IVC

Pierces central tendon of diaphragm

49

Path of SVC

From internal jugular veins

50

Path of veins in relation to arteries

Anteriorally mirror the path of arteries

51

Vein associated with the common carotid arteries

Internal jugular veins

52

Vein associated with the subclavian arteries

Subclavian veins

53

What forms the brachiocephalic veins?

Fusion of internal jugular vein, subclavian vein

54

What do the left and right brachiocephalic veins form?

Superior vena cava

55

Role of azygous veins

Drain thorax into SVC

56

What does the final azagous vein drain into?

Arches into the back of the SVC