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Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Deck (46):
1

What is the larynx?

The voicebox

2

Features of the nasal cavity mucosa

Very vascular
Ciliated

3

Divisions of the nasal mucosa

Olfactory
Respiratory

4

Features of respiratory nasal mucosa

Stratified columnar epithelium
Ciliated

5

Vestibule

Nostril hole

6

What lines the lateral walls of the nose?

Tubinates (3 bones)

7

3 bones lining the lateral walls of the nose

Superior concha
Middle concha
Inferior concha

8

Role of turbinates

Produce turbulance in inspired air
This keeps air in the nose for longer, warms and humidifies air

9

Space beneath each concha

Meatus

10

What do the meati open into?

Paranasal sinuses

11

Paranasal sinuses
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Frontal sinuses
2) Ethmoid sinuses
3) Sphenoid sinuses
4) Maxillary sinuses

12

Mucosa of the sinuses

Share with nose
Very vascularised, innervated

13

Why are problems with the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses easily resolved?

Above nose, so drain into nose with gravity

14

Why are problems with the maxillary sinuses hard to resolve?

Nose connects with maxillary sinus at top of sinus, so hard to drain with gravity

15

Anterior boundary of oral cavity

Lips

16

Superior boundary of oral cavity
1)
2)
3)

1) Maxilla
2) Palatine bone (hard palate)
3) Uvola (soft palate)

17

Inferior boundary of oral cavity
1)
2)

1) Mandible
2) Myohyoid muscle

18

Features of anterior 2/3 of toungue

Papillae
Papillae house taste buds

19

Features of posterior 1/3 of tongue

Lingual tonsil (immune tissue)

20

Structure dividing anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of tongue

Sulcus terminalis

21

Types of papillae
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Fungiform (mid-tongue)
2) Vallate (along sulcus terminalis)
3) Foliate (lateral tongue)
4) Filiform (don't house taste buds)

22

Types of tongue muscles

Intrinsic
Extrinsic

23

Number of teeth in a normal perosn

32

24

Types of teeth

4 incisors
2 canine
4 premolars
6 molars (including 2 wisdom teeth)

25

What is the larynx?

A cartilaginous skeleton

26

Epiglottis

Cartilage disc
Pushed to cover laryngeal inlet during swallwing

27

Orientation of oesophagus and trachea

Trachea is anterior to oesophagus

28

Orientation of thyroid and cricoid cartilage

Thyroid cartilage superior to cricoid cartilage

29

Arytenoid cartilage

Sits posteriorly in trachea

Attached anteriorly to posterior end of thyroid cartilage with vocal ligament

Articulates with posterior aspect of cricoid cartilage

Can swivel on cricoid cartilage to adduct, abduct vocal ligaments

30

Cartilage in larynx
1)
2)
3)

1) Thyroid
2) Cricoid
3) Arytenoid

31

Folds of vocal ligaments
1)
2)

1) Vestibular fold (superior)
2) Vocal fold

32

Function of vestibular fold

Protects vocal fold

33

Function of vocal fold

Makes sound

34

Abduction of vocal ligaments

Inspiraiton

35

Adduction of vocal ligaments

Phonation

36

Layers of pharynx
1)
2)
3)

1) Nasopharynx
2) Oropharynx
3) Laryngopharynx

37

What is the pharynx?

Sling of muscles that chose off the mouth, nose, larynx

38

Muscles making up the pharynx
1)
2)
3)

1) Superior constrictor muscle
2) Middle constrictor muscle
3) Inferior constrictor muscle

39

Attachment of superior constrictor muscle

Medial pterygoid plate
Pterygoid hamulus
Pterygomandibular raphe
Mylohyoid line of mandible
Side of tongue

40

Attachment of middle constrictor muscle

Hyoid bone

41

Attachment of inferior constrictor muscle

Arch of cricoid
Oblique line of thyroid

42

Features in nasopharynx

Pharyngeal tonsil

Opening of auditory tube/eustachian tube into middle ear

43

Features in oropharynx

Soft palate

Uvula

Epiglottis

Palatine tonsils

44

Features in laryngopharynx

Epiglottis (boundary between oropharynx and laryngopharynx)

Piriform recess

45

What is the piriform recess?

Grooves either side of epiglottis provide a path for water

Water isn't heavy enough to depress the epiglottis

46

Insertion of all constrictor muscles

Median raphae of pharynx