Principles of Viscera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles of Viscera Deck (33):
1

Two types of viscera

Solid, hollow

2

Layers of hollow viscera
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Serosa
2) Muscularis
3) Muscosa
4) Lumen

3

Common sites of hollow lumen constriciton

Beginning, end of viscus.
Can be site specific.

4

Example of site-specific contraction of hollow lumen

Where male urethra pierces pelvic floor

5

What does a duct often do as it approaches the wall of a hollow viscus?

Narrows (an orifice)

6

Name of stone that can get caught in an orifice

Calculus

7

Arrangement of muscle in muscularis

Alternating layers of circular and longitudinal muscle

8

Divisions of solid viscera

Outer cortex, inner medulla

9

Two types of sphincters

Anatomical, functional

10

Anatomical sphincter

Localised muscle thickening around the wall of a tubular viscus.
Usually under tension

11

normal state of anatomical sphincter

Under tension

12

Common location of anatomical sphincters

At distal end of ducts, near an external orifice

13

Functional spincter

No localised muscle thickening, orifice narrowed through another mechanism

14

Example of functional sphincter

Bladder
Ureter enters bladder at an oblique angle. When bladder fills, pushes ureters outwards, prevents reflux.

15

Involuntary sphincter

Smooth muscle
Autonomic innervation
1st line of defence

16

Voluntary sphincter

Skeletal muscle
Somatic innervation
2nd line of defence

17

Example of involuntary and voluntary sphincters

In anal sphincters
Superior sphincter is involuntary, inferior sphincter is voluntary

18

Serous membrane

Membrane that covers all or part of a viscus
Lines the body cavity

19

Divisions of serous membrane

Parietal
Visceral

20

Nerve and blood supply of visceral serous membrane

Autonomic nerves
Same blood supply as covered organ

21

Nerve and blood supply of parietal serous membrane

Somatic innervation
Blood supply from abdominal wall

22

Location of peritoneal cavity

Below diaphragm

23

Retroperitoneal

Outside peritoneum
Fixed position

24

Intraperitoneal

Within periotoneal cavity
Attached to mesentary
Movable position

25

Viscera in danger of torsion

Viscera hanging from the end of a mesentary

26

Pattern of referred pain of a heart attack

Felt in skin above heart, under arm

27

Spinal cord segment supplying skin under arm

T1

28

Spinal cord segments supplying heart

T1 - T5

29

Spinal cord segments supplying skin above heart

T2 - T5

30

Location of pain felt from paired viscera

In skin above infected viscus

31

Location of pain felt from unpaired organs

Pain referred to where organ originated in midline (from where it migrated from).

Pain only felt in skin when somatic nerves are involved

32

Reason for unpaired viscera referred pain felt in midline

Developmental.
Unpaired viscera originate in the midline, and migrate outwards.

33

Pain felt from inflamed appendix

Initial pain is felt in midline
Pain shifts to left when parietal peritoneal becomes inflamed (has a somatic nerve supply)