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Flashcards in gender bias Deck (15)
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1
Q

define beta bias

A

minimises the differences between men and women

2
Q

why is beta bias an issue

A

leads to theories misrepresenting a gender

3
Q

define alpha bias

A

exaggerates differences between men and women

4
Q

why is alpha bias an issue

A
  • theories devalue one gender

- can cause stereotypes and prejudices

5
Q

define androcentrism

A

taking male behaviour as the accepted norm and applying it to women

6
Q

why is androcentrism an issue

A

theories devalue and misrepresent women

7
Q

outline one example of alpha bias in psychological research

A
  • freud’s psychosexual sexual stages
  • androcentric
  • believed there were genuine psychological differences between men and women
  • at the time of development, men were regarded as dominant
  • viewed femininity as ‘failed masculinity’
8
Q

outline an example of beta bias in psychological research

A
  • fight-or-flight response
  • early research only conducted on male animals
  • findings generalised to both genders
9
Q

define the term universality

A

underlying characteristics of humans that can be applied to all individuals, despite differences of upbringing and experience

10
Q

explain why psychological research which is gender biased will be misleading

A
  • research produces misleading assumptions of female behaviour
  • this validates discriminatory behaviour
11
Q

explain how gender bias promotes sexism in the workplace

A
  • lack of females in senior research level: women’s concerns are not expressed
  • male researches are more likely to be published
12
Q

explain the issue of gender biased research often going unchallenged

A
  • Darwin’s theory of sexual selection suggests women are very selective in terms of mate selection
  • these views are only recently changed by DNA evidence suggesting women are as equally competitive as men
13
Q

explain the feminist approach as a way of reducing gender bias

A
  • attempts to restore imbalance
  • accepts there are biological differences between genders
  • Eagly claims females are less effective leaders
  • purpose of this claim is to help researchers develop training programmes aimed at reducing lack of female leaders
14
Q

explain how contemporary psychologists have looked for ways to reduce gender bias

A
  • develop theories that emphasise the importance of women
  • Comwel et al. noted females better at learning as they are more organised etc.
  • help to reduce/challenge gender stereotypes
15
Q

outline an example of androcentrism in psychological research

A
  • Asch’s conformity study
  • used only male participants
  • assumed females would behave in the same way