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Flashcards in nature / nurture Deck (12)
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1
Q

briefly outline the nature / nurture debate

A

relative contributions of heredity and experiences to behaviour

2
Q

what side of the debate are nativists and explain their theory

A
  • nature side
  • we are born with pre-programmed behaviours as a result of heredity
  • Descartes suggests human soul is already equipped with an understanding of key concepts
  • evidence of support from evolutionary and biological theories
3
Q

what is meant by heritability

A

extent to which a characteristic can be attributed to being inherited

4
Q

give examples of the nature side of the debate from research

A
  • genetic explanations eg. schizophrenia and OCD

- evolutionary explanations eg. Bowlby’s survival theory by attachment

5
Q

what side of the debate are empiricists and explain their theory

A
  • nurture
  • suggests we are born with no drives and we learn everything from experience
  • Locke argued we are born as a blank slate and experiences write on this to make us into who we become
  • evidence support comes from the behaviourist approach
6
Q

give examples of the nurture side of the debate from research

A
  • behaviourist approach eg. types of conditioning

- SLT eg. aggression learnt through vicarious reinforcement (Bandura)

7
Q

what does relative importance mean

A
  • debate is impossible to answer because as soon as you are born you are experiencing environmental factors
  • it makes little sense to separate the two
  • now more likely to seek the relative contribution of each influence on thought and behaviour
8
Q

explain the diathesis-stress model as an evaluation for this debate

A
  • genes for a behaviour exist but they must be triggered by stress/trauma from environment
  • this suggests cause of behaviour comes from both sides of the debate
  • can be seen in OCD - psychopathology
9
Q

explain epigenetics as an evaluation point of this debate

A
  • change in genetic activity without changing genetic code
  • lifestyles and experiences leave epigenetic marks on DNA
  • marks tell our bodies which genes to ignore or use
  • marks stay in genes and can be passed down generations
  • life experience of ancestors cause a nature and nurture interaction
10
Q

explain constructivism as an evaluation point for this theory

A
  • people create own nurture by seeking environments that suit their behaviour
  • eg. a shy child would associate with people who have similar behaviours
  • ‘niche building’
  • will have an effect on their own behaviour
  • evidence as to why it’s illogical to separate both influences of behaviour
11
Q

what is meant by the interactionist approach

A

nature and nurture are linked so researchers study how they interact and influence each other

12
Q

explain how the relative influence of genes can be investigated

A
  • identical twins share 100% of the same DNA so if behaviour was purely based on genetics they should be the exact same - but they’re not, so the environment must play a part
  • if measured similarly they would have a high concordance rate
  • adoption studies