General Concepts and Principles of Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Concepts and Principles of Disease Deck (23):
1

Define disease

A disturbances of body structure or function

2

What are organic diseases?

Diseases associated with structural changes

3

What are functional diseases?

Diseases associated with no morphological changes but function is profoundly disturbed

4

What is Etiology?

The cause of a disease

5

What is Pathogenesis?

The way in which a disease develops

6

What is Prognosis?

The probable outcome of a disease

7

What are the 5 classes of diseases?

Congenital/Hereditary
Neoplastic
Imflammatory
Metabolic
Degenerative

8

What are Congenital/Hereditary diseases?

- Diseases that arise from a problem during development
- Can be genetic, intrauterine injury and foetal development issues

9

What are Inflammatory diseases?

- Diseases that are caused by the body's reaction to an injurious agent via inflammation
- Reacting to pathogens, Allergic reactions and autoimmune

10

What are Degenerative diseases?

- Diseases caused by the degeneration of various parts of the body
- Manifestation of the ageing process
- i.e. osteoporosis, ateriosclerosis

11

What are Metabolic diseases?

- Diseases caused by disturbances in the metabolic processes
- Endocrine and metabolism related

12

What are Neoplastic diseases?

- Diseases characterised by abnormal cell growth that leads to various types of tumours
- Can be benign or malignant

13

What are the principals of diagnosis?

Examine clinical history
Conduct physical examination
Differentiate between possible conditions

14

What is clinical history?

- The history of the current illness, symptoms and main complaints
- Past medical history
- Family history

15

What are the 4 techniques used in the physical examination?

Inspection
Palpation - feeling for abnormalities
Percussion - tapping an area
Auscultation - listening to the body via a stethoscope

16

What is differential diagnosis?

The process of differentiating between diseases with similar symptoms

17

What is an ultrasound?

- A technique for mapping the echoes produced by high frequency sound waves transmitted into the body.
- Echo waves reflecting a change in density of the tissues are recorded

18

How do X-rays work?

X-rays are passed through the body and recorded after absorption

19

How is a CT scan done?

X-ray tube is rotated around the patient which produces images of the patient in cross section

20

How does an MRI work?

- A strong magnet develops a strong magnetic field which can transmit and receive radio-frequency waves
- A computer receives impulses and turns them into images
- Depends on the response of hydrogen protons and water content of body tissues

21

What is PET and what is it's use?

Positron Emission Tomography
Can distinguish between a benign and malignant tumour

22

What is the purpose of screening for diseases?

It allows us to detect asymptomatic diseases, prevents serious diseases going unnoticed

23

What are the requirements for effective screening?

- A significant number of individuals must be at risk
- Inexpensive and non-invasive test
- Early identification and treatment of disease will give a favorable outcome