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Flashcards in General Grammar Deck (157)
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1

How does one express Accompaniment?

'cum' + ablative

2

How does one express Time When

Ablative

3

How does one express Time Within Which

Ablative

4

How does one express Duration of Time (Time during which)

Accusative

5

How does one express Extent of Space

Accusative

6

How does one express "with respect to" which something is true

Ablative (the Ablative of Respect/Specification)

7

How does one use the Double Dative

-two Datives in close proximity (Purpose/Service and Reference)
-One denotes the PURPOSE, with reference to the Second Dative

8

How does one express comparison with 'quam'

same case before and after 'than; + comparative adjective

9

How does one express comparison without 'quam'

Ablative with no preposition + comparative adjective

10

How does one express Degree of Difference

Ablative used with comparatives (Expresses the Degree of Difference).
- used with Superlatives when there is an IMPLICIT comparative judgement being made

11

How does one use the Partitive Genitive

Genitive: expresses the whole group.
The word on which the Genitive Depends: expresses the part.

12

How does one express 'more... (men)'

Plus/Plures + Partitive Genitive

13

How does one express 'He has enough money and he has more money than you'

With Partitive Genitives. 'Satis pecuniae... Plus pecuniae...'

14

Another way of expressing the Partitive Genitive? When is this better?

e(ex), de + ablative. if the word denoting the part is a cardinal numeral

15

The Ablative Absolute. Can translate as?

'with, when, since, if, although'

16

The Ablative Absolute as a clause

it MUST have a different subject than the next clause

17

How does one express 'because of...' Both ways

-Ablative of cause: 'because of [Ablative]'
-propter/ob + Accusative

18

How does one express the quality of another noun

Ablative and Genitive of Description modified by an adjective. 'a [noun] OF [adjective + A/G]'

19

How does one use the Subjective Genitive

a verbal idea understood in nouns/adjectives of feeling or action. The noun that is the subject of this verbal idea is the Subjective Genitive: 'feminae amor = a woman's love'

20

How does one express the Objective Genitive

a verbal idea understood in nouns/adjectives of feeling or action. The noun that is its object of this verbal idea is the Objective Gentive: 'metus belli= fear of war'

21

How does one use the Predicate Genitive

as a Genitive of Characteristic.
-It can be modified by an adjective
-often accompanied by 'sum'
-it denotes a characteristic or class
-translates as 'it is the mark of...'

22

How does one express Exclamation

Accusative

23

How does one use the Greek Accusative

-It is an accusative of Respect (rather than Ablative)
-poetic
-expresses the part effected, often specifies the part of the body
-after middle voice verbs (where the subject performs the action and experiences its effects)
-often passive forms used in a reflexive sense

24

What is the Adverbial Accusative

when the Accusative of respect functioning adverbially.
-singular neuter forms turned to adverbs
'with respect to the greatest part = maximam partem'
'at that time = with respect to that of time = Id temporis'
'he works a lot = he works with respect to much = Multum laborat'

25

How does one create expressions of Remembering and Forgetting

Genitive/Accusative of the thing forgotten/remembered.

26

How does one express Indefinite Value? What verbs is it found with?

-a few neuter adjective and some nouns which imply utter worthlessness are used in the Genitive.
-The Genitive expresses the value of the person/thing/situation if the value is indefinite/not specifically determined
-found with verbs that mean 'consider, reckon, value'

27

How does one express the price of something

with an instrumental Ablative (an Ablative of means) --> the Ablative of Price. The "for (price)"

28

How does one express Accusation and Condemnation

The Genitive is used to express the charge or penalty

29

How does one express Means

Ablative without a preposition expresses the means/instrument by which something is done

30

How does one express Manner

- 'cum' + Ablative (not modified by an adjective)
- Ablative modified by an adjective ('cum' is optional)
- expresses the way/manner in which something is done

31

What is the Personal Agent

the person doing the action of a passive verb

32

How does one express the Personal Agent

a(ab) + Ablative

33

When is the Personal Agent different, and how?

- with the Passive Periphrastic the Agent is in the Dative, without a preposition

34

How does one express Possession with forms of the verb 'sum'

The Dative shows Possession
'The crown is the queen's = the crown is to the queen = corona est reginae'

35

How does one express Separation/Deprivation

The Ablative is used to express 'from'
-Often the Ablative is on its own but a(ab), e(ex) and de are optional.
-Related to this is the Ablative of origin/descent

36

How does one express Place From Which

a(ab), e(ex), de + Ablative
Except for: names of towns, cities, small islands, 'domus', and 'rus' which take no preposition.

37

How does one express Place To Which

ad + Accusative
Except for: names of towns, cities, small islands, 'domus' and 'rus' which take no preposition.

38

Present Infinitives

A: are, ere, ere, ire
P: ari, eri, i, iri

39

Perfect Infinitives

A: perfect stem + isse (optavisse)
P: PPP -- esse (optatus esse)

40

Future Infinitives

A: FAP -- esse (optaturus esse)
P: PPP -- iri (optatum iri)

41

Present Imperatives

A; a, e, e, i --- ate, ete, ite, ite
P are, ere, ere, ire --- mini

42

Future Imperatives

A: to --- tote/nto (2nt/3rd person)
P: tor --- ntor

43

Negative Imperatives

Noli + present infinitive (ne + present/perfect subjunctive)
--- Nolite + present infinitive (ne + present/perfect subjunctive)

44

The Negative of a PC

'ne'

45

IS

subject accusative, verb infinitive

46

The Negative of a CofR

ut non

47

what are CofR

signalled by
Adjectives: tantus-a-um, talis-e, tot.
Adverbs: its, tam, sic, adeo.

48

Tense exception of CofR

perfect subjunctive in secondary sequence can stress the action being completed

49

DQ, yes expected

'nonne'

50

DQ, no expected

'num'

51

What is an IQ

clauses that take place after words that imply actions that take place in the head. Introduced by W.W.W.W.W.H

52

Double IQ Negative

utrum/-ne/- ...necne (not an non) [necne for uncertainty- verbs are in subjunctive, after all]

53

Double DQ NEgative

utrum/-ne/-- ... an non/(annon/anne)

54

Adjectives of the 3rd Declension

3,2,1 terminations. (acer-cris-cre, omnis-e, ingens-ntis)
All -i stems as such
(M/F): ns, ntem, ntis, nti, nti --- ntes, ntes(is), ntium, ntibus, ntibus
(N) ns, ns, ntis, nti, nti --- ntia, ntia, ntium, ntibus, ntibus

55

Present Participles

declined like a ONE termination 3rd Adjective.
BUT: Ablative Singular is -i ending (used as an attributive adjective) or -e ending (used as a noun)

56

Participles can be translated as

'when, since, slthough, since, if'

57

Rules for finding III i-stems

1) Nsing and Gsing have the same amount of syllables
2) noun stem ends in two consonants, except if the second is and 'l' or 'r'
3) Nsing of a neuter noun ends in 'e', 'al', 'ar'

58

the Locative Case expresses

'Place in which' and 'Place where'

59

the Locative Case is (for the special words)

1st nouns:
Sg: G singular ('ae')
Pl: Ab plural ('is')

2nd nouns:
Sg: G singular ('i')
Pl: Ab plural ('is')

3rd nouns:
Sg: Ab singular ('e' or 'i')
Pl: Ab plural ('ibus')

60

The Vocative case is

identical to the Nominative except for 2nd Declensions
ending in -us: -e
ending in -ius: 'i

61

Meus-a-um has a vocative

Mi

62

Adjectives with a Genitive singular -ius

alius-a-ud (other)
alter, altera, alterum (the other [of two])
ullus-a-um (any)
nullus-a-um (no, none)
uter, utra, utrum (which [of two])
neuter, neutra, neutrum (neither)
solus-a-um (only)
unus-a-um (one, alone)
totus-a-um (whole, all)
--> Taannuuus

63

Adjective comparatives

-ior -ius. decline like 3rds. NOT -i stems

64

Adverb Formation

1st/2nd Declensions: -e
3rd Declensions: -iter

65

Adverb comparatives/superlative

-ius
-issime (-rime, -lime)

66

Deponent Active Infinitives (Precor)

Present: Precari
Perfect: Precatus esse
Future: Precaturus esse

67

Deponent Active Participles (Precor)

Present: Precans
Perfect: Precatus-a-um
Future: Precaturus-a-um

68

Deponent Passive Participles (Precor)

Present: -
Perfect: -
Future: Precandus-a-um

69

Perfect Active Syncopation

-vi- and -ve- can be dropped. -ere can replace -erunt

70

'cum' Temporal Clause

-refers strictly to time
-action is coordinate with that of the main verb
-'at the very time when'

71

Verbs of a 'cum' Temporal Clause

Indicative

72

'cum' Circumstantial Clause

-states the circumstances in which the main verb takes place
-'when' 'under the circumstances of'

73

Verbs of a 'cum' Circumstantial Clause

primary: Indicative
Secondary: Subjunctive

74

'cum' Causal Clause

'since' 'because'

75

Verbs of a 'cum' Causal Clause

Subjunctive

76

'cum' Concessive Clause

'although'
'tamen' in the main clause can indicate Concessive 'cum' clause.

77

Verbs of a 'cum' Causal Clause

subjunctive

78

'Cum' can also mean X, what verbs in this case?

can mean "whenever"
Primary: -perfect indicative translated as present
Secondary: -pluperfect indicative translated as imperfect

79

'Cum'Clauses can be replaced by

Ablative Absolutes

80

Other words that can introduce Temporal Clauses, What Verbs

ut, ubi, postquam, quando

81

Other words that can introduce Causal Clauses, What Verbs

quoniam, quando + indicative (almost always)
quod, quia + subjunctive/ indicative (allegedly/ actually)

82

Other words that can introduce Concessive Clauses, What Verbs

quamquam + indicative
Etsi + indic/subj (act/all)
quamvis + subjunctive

83

Quod, Quia. Meaning and Verb

'because' + indicative/subjunctive (actually/allegedly)

84

Dum, Donec, Quoad. Meaning and Verb

'until' --> ordinary rules
'as long as' --> indicative same as main verb
'while' --> present indicative (for action in past time 'historical present')

85

Ante, Prius, Antequam, Priusquam. Meaning and Verb

"before"
temporal: indicative
purpose, intention, idea; secondary sequence: subjunctive
purpose, intention, idea; primary sequence: indicative (present, future perfect), but sometimes present subjunctive

86

Clauses of Proviso
-meaning
-verbs
-negative

Dum, Modo, Dummodo: 'if only, provided that'
-express conditional wishes
- present and imperfect subjunctive
Negative: ne

87

Jussive + Hortatory

3rd person, 1st person.
present subjunctive
'let' 'let's'

88

Optative (possible)
-different cases

'I wish he would....'
'if only he would...'
' would that he may...'
present subjunctive: a wish for the future
can be introduced by: utinam, ut.

89

Optative (impossible)
-different cases

Wish incapable of fulfilment
Imperfect subjunctive for present time: 'I wish he were...' 'if only he were...' 'would that he were...'
Pluperfect Subjunctive for past time: 'I wish he had...' 'if only he had...' 'would that he had...'

90

Deliberative
-different cases

A rhetorical question asked for effect (not for an answer) used to deliberate about something.
Present subjunctive: 'what am I to do?' 'What should I do
Imperfect Subjunctive: 'what was I to do?' 'what should I have done?'

91

Potential
-present
-future
-past

'would, could, might'
for Present/Future potentiality: present (sometimes perfect) subjunctive
for past potentiality: imperfect subjucntive

92

Potential (negative)

non

93

Jussive + Hortatory (negative)

ne

94

Deliberative (negative)

non

95

Optative (negative)

utinam ne, ne

96

Verbs of Prevention and their Verbs

Veto, Prohibeo + infinitive
Deterreo, Impedio, Obsto + subjunctive

97

Verbs of Prevention (positive)

introduced by 'quominus' (by which the less) or 'ne' (in order that not)

98

Verbs of PRevention (negative)

introduced by 'quominus' (by which the less) or 'quin' (but that)

99

Clauses of Doubting constructions

Dubito + infinitive: 'hesitate'
Dubito + positive (I doubt): introduces an IQ (num/an = whether)
Dubito + negative (I don't doubt): quin (but that) + subjunctive clause.
OR a virtual negative (who doubts = implication that no one doubts)

100

Clauses of Fearing

subjunctive Clauses
Positive: ne
Negative: ut

Sequences of tenses bu if the futurity is stressed: Active Periphrastic used

101

efficere ut/ne

'to bring it about that' + sunjucntive

102

facere ut/ne

'to see to it that' + subjunctive

103

accidit ut/ ne

'it happens that' +subjunctive

104

fit ut

' it comes about that' 'it happens that' + subjunctive

105

fieri potest ut

'it is able to happen that' 'it his possible that' +subjucntive

106

quod as introducing a substantive clause of result

'the fact that' + indicative

-subject/object of another verb
-or in opposition to the subject of that other verb

107

Clauses of Result

introduced by Adjectives: tantus-a-um, talis-e, tot
and Adverbs: ita, tam, sic, adeo

IF the Perfect Subjunctive is used in 2ndary sequence this can stress completed action

108

Clauses of Result (negative)

ut non

109

Relative Clauses of Characteristic

(RP) qui, quae, quod + subjunctive
-describes the antecedent in terms of general characteristic
-'the kind of man' rather than 'the actual man'
'kind of' 'sort of'

110

Relative Clauses of Characteristic (negative)

quin or qui/quae/quod...non

111

Relative Clauses of Result

qui, quae, quod instead of ut
'(with the result) that'

112

Relative Clauses of Purpose

Introduced by Quo (by which): introduces a PC which contains a -comparative.
OR an Adverb: RP (who may)/PP/ubi (where), unde (from where), quo ([to] where)

-verbs in SUBJUNCTIVE!

These words can translate as they would normally or as 'in order that'

113

Gerundive is preferred over Gerund

for governing an object

114

The Gerundive is not used for

governing neuter adjectives, or pronouns, or Genitive Plurals

115

Supine

Verbal neuter noun.
Accusative (-um): after verbs of motion without a preposition to express purpose (to/in order to)

Ablative (-u): used with some adjectives(facilis, dulcis, turpis, fas, nefas). It is an ablative of respect (-'to') [does not take an accusative]

116

ad + accusative Gerund(ive)

'for the purpose of'

117

Gentive Gerund(ive) + causa

'for the sake of'

118

Gerund(ive) + ad/causa can be replaced by

an ut clause

119

(a(ab), e(ex), de) + Ablative Gerund (or just Ab Gerund on its own)

expresses instrument/means

120

Gerundive is necessary for

In order to avoid direct object with:
-the Dative of the Gerund
-the Accusative of the gerund+preposition
-the Ablative of the Gerund+preposition

121

'the same'

idem, eadem, idem

122

'that...(of yours)'

iste, ista, istud

123

Relative Pronoun

qui,quae, quod 'whom, which'

124

Interrogative Adjective

qui, quae, quod 'which? what?'

125

Interrogative Pronoun

quis, quid 'whom? what?

126

'certain' (pronoun)

quidam, quaedam, quiddam

127

'certain' (adjective)

quidam, quaedam, quoddam

128

The Main Indefinite Pronoun 1 and its adjective

aliquis, aliquid (someone, something, anyone, anything). Adjective: aliqui, aliqua, aliquod (some, any)

129

the Indefinite Pronoun after si, nisi, num, ne and its adjective

quis, quid(someone, something, anyone, anything). Adjective: qui, qua, quod (some, any)

130

the Indefinite Pronoun after negative sentences or sentences that imply negation and its adjective

quisquam, quidquam/quicquam. Adjective: ullus, ulla, ulllum

131

The Main Indefinite Pronoun 2 and its adjective

quisque, quidque/quicque (each, each one, every, every one). Adjective: quique, quaeque, quodque (each, every)

132

the Main Indefinite Pronoun 2 only appears after X(?). otherwise it appears as?

superlative, relative pronoun, interrogative pronoun, ordinal number, reflexive pronoun.

unusquisque, unaquaeque, unumquodque

133

Interest & Refert

'it concerns, it is of interest, it is in the interest of'
Genitive of Person concerned, but if a PP is desired: ablative adjectival forms (mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra)

Thing of concern: infinitive, ut clause, neuter singular demonstrative pronoun

134

'Fore ut' is used for

=futurum esse ut
1) Future Passive in IS [scit fore ut ipse a civibus laudetur]
2) future active idea when the verb has no 4th PP (thus no Future Active Infinitive)
--> essential for possum

135

Verb after Fore ut

will be present or imperfect subjunctive, depending on whether the head verb is primary or secondary sequence

136

putat fore ut... scribere possit
sentit fore ut... laudetur

he thinks that...(x) will be able to write...
He feels that...(x) will/would be praised...

137

If there is no perfect participle active

1) make the participle agree with the subject or object. 2) If this is not possible us the Ablative Absolute

138

"saying this"

"having said this" ...a participle

139

Three common English sentence types that, in Latin, must be constructed using Participles

1) Two simple verbs joined by "and" or "but"
2) Phrases with prepositions or conjunctions
3) Clauses denoting time, cause etc.

140

"nineteen years old"

undeviginti annos NATUS

141

"three days before/after"

tribus ANTE/POST diebus

142

"three days ago"

ABHINC tres dies

143

how does one say "told"

Passive of Dico = Is said. Certior fieri

144

"et" and forbidden placement

"et can never go before a negative, use neque

145

Correct the following: et nunquam

neque umquam

146

Correct the following: et nulla navis

neque ulla navis

147

Compound verbs with sum (such as praesum) take

the Dative

148

Words that take the subjunctive without ut

volo, oportet, licet, dic!, fac

149

When is a 'dum clause' always present indicative

when the dum-clause covers a period of time greater than the main clause, it has the present indicative after all tenses

150

'num quis' in a DQ

is there no-one who?

151

When might the subjunctive be used in Direct Question

deliberative/potential subjunctive: quid faciam?/num id fecisses?

152

nescio an/haud scio an +subjucntive

'I rather think...' (a modest assertion)

153

Future in IQs

(no future subjunctive, and no records of futurum sit)
present/imperfect subjunctive must be used with 'mox, brevi, postea'

154

'as soon as'

simulac, cum primum + indicative

155

'1) oportet, 2) necesse est, 3) licet'

Noun case is subject
1) it is necessary/proper --> Acc + inf
2)it is necessary --> Acc + inf, Dat + inf, ut clause
3) it is permitted --> Acc + inf, Dat + inf, ut clause

156

'1) miseret, 2) piget, 3) taedet'

Accusative Subject, Genitive of object
1) it pities, it moves to pity
2) it disgusts
3) it bores, it disgusts

157

1) taedet, 2) paenitet, 3) pudet'

Accusative Subject, Genitive of object
1) it bores, it disgusts
2) it repents
3) it shames