Genetic Variability Flashcards Preview

Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Genetic Variability > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetic Variability Deck (17):
1

Genetic Recombination

-Cross over
-increases genetic variability
-not a mutation

2

Congenital Defect

A birth defect
-develops during prenatal life-present at birth
-genetic or environmental factors

3

Genetic Abnormality

rare/uncommon version of a trait
--albinism

4

Mutation

change in nucleotides that produce a new allele
-may be good, bad, or have no effect
-usually occurs during copying of DNA

5

Genetic Disorder

Inherited Condition
-sooner of later causes mild to sever problems
-alteration in DNA sequence that affects synthesis of on e product of protein.
-you get it from a parent

6

Genetic Disease

Not Inherited
-Illness that effects workable genes
-viral, radiation can cause this

7

Duplication

Segment of DNA is copied twice
-generally not too bad/harmful

8

Inversion

Segment of DNA is inverted
-generally not too bad/harmful

9

Translocation

Crossover of non-homologous chromosomes
-the genes were switched for a different gene not an allele

10

Insertion/ Deletion

-A nucleotide or a segments is added or deleted
-lethal or serious disease
-viral attack or radiation

11

Aneuploidy

change in chromosome number
-usually 1 extra or less (47 or 45 chromosomes)
-failure of chromosomes to seperate during meiosos (chromatid separating)
--happens in meiosis II

12

Monosomy

missing 1 member of a chromosome pair (45 chromosomes)
-severe, abortion

13

Polysomy

extra chromosome
-3 homologous autosomes or 3 sex chromosomes

14

Down Syndrome

Extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21)
-symptoms vary
-most show moderate to severe mental impairment

15

XXY

Kleinfelter's Syndrome
-sterile, smaller reproductive organs
-1 in 500-1000

16

XYY

-large stature
-1 in 1000

17

Monosomy of X

Short stature, malformed ovaries, no secondary sexual characteristics, congenital heart defects