Flashcards in GI-3 Deck (31):
What are the 4 types of hernias?
Inguinal, umbilical, incisional, and femoral
What is an inguinal hernia?
When the canal which allows the testis to drop into the scrotum remains open after birth
What is an umbilical hernia?
Outie belly button, opening in the abdominal wall
What is an incisional hernia?
Scar tissue replaces an incision area. The scar tissue is not as strong and the intestine pushes through it
What is a femoral hernia?
The femoral artery and vein enter the abdominal cavity into the leg
What is it called when the bowel moves into an area?
A sliding hernia
What is it called when the bowel segment twists and cuts off its own blood supply?
What is an adhesion?
Fibrous bands form between structures due to peritoneal inflammation or surgery. The adhesion acts as a fulcrum which allows the structure to twist on itself
What is a volvulus?
Twisting of bowel occurring spontaneously that leads to compression of the mesentery vein and artery causing infarct
Where is intussusception common?
What are diverticula?
Outpuchings of the bowel wall
Colonic diverticulosis is often secondary to?
Why are colonic diverticula called false diverticula?
No muscularis propria
What are the 3 possible outcomes of colonic diverticula
1. Hypertrophy of the muscularis propria causing further diverticulosis
2. Fecal impaction leading to infection by bacteria or diverticulitis, this can spill into abdomen (peritonitis)
3. Diverticula can rupture into blood vessel
What is the term for the point of least resistance where diverticula can develop?
Locus minoris resistentiae
What is ileus?
Absence of peristalsis in the GI tract
What 2 things can cause ileus?
1. Irritation of the peritoneum (manipulation during surgery)
2. Spastic contraction of the bowel (volvulus)
What are symptoms of IBS?
Distention and pain, flatulence, disordered bowel functions
What are extra intestinal causes of malabsorption?
Pancreatic or biliary secretion inadequacy
Deficiency in what enzymes can cause intestinal malabsorption?
Disaccharidase and lactase deficiencies
Celiac disease leads to?
Fat in stools, inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins, anemia, abdominal pain
What causes celiac?
Sensitivity to gluten, a part of it called gliaden
Gliaden is acted on by what enzyme?
Serum tests for celiac look for?
Anti-gliadin and anti-tTg antibodies
Those with celiac may develop what skin condition?
What type of malignancy is associated with celiac?
Enteropathy associated t cell lymphoma
What is Whipple disease?
Malabsorption disease where mucosa is infiltrated by foamy macrophages with whippelli bacteria
T whippelli is positive for?
Where do hemorrhoids often form?
At the anorectal junction
What is the cause of internal hemorrhoids?