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Systemic Pathology Test 2 > GI-3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI-3 Deck (31):
1

What are the 4 types of hernias?

Inguinal, umbilical, incisional, and femoral

2

What is an inguinal hernia?

When the canal which allows the testis to drop into the scrotum remains open after birth

3

What is an umbilical hernia?

Outie belly button, opening in the abdominal wall

4

What is an incisional hernia?

Scar tissue replaces an incision area. The scar tissue is not as strong and the intestine pushes through it

5

What is a femoral hernia?

The femoral artery and vein enter the abdominal cavity into the leg

6

What is it called when the bowel moves into an area?

A sliding hernia

7

What is it called when the bowel segment twists and cuts off its own blood supply?

Strangulated hernia

8

What is an adhesion?

Fibrous bands form between structures due to peritoneal inflammation or surgery. The adhesion acts as a fulcrum which allows the structure to twist on itself

9

What is a volvulus?

Twisting of bowel occurring spontaneously that leads to compression of the mesentery vein and artery causing infarct

10

Where is intussusception common?

Ileocecal valve

11

What are diverticula?

Outpuchings of the bowel wall

12

Colonic diverticulosis is often secondary to?

Constipation

13

Why are colonic diverticula called false diverticula?

No muscularis propria

14

What are the 3 possible outcomes of colonic diverticula

1. Hypertrophy of the muscularis propria causing further diverticulosis
2. Fecal impaction leading to infection by bacteria or diverticulitis, this can spill into abdomen (peritonitis)
3. Diverticula can rupture into blood vessel

15

What is the term for the point of least resistance where diverticula can develop?

Locus minoris resistentiae

16

What is ileus?

Absence of peristalsis in the GI tract

17

What 2 things can cause ileus?

1. Irritation of the peritoneum (manipulation during surgery)
2. Spastic contraction of the bowel (volvulus)

18

What are symptoms of IBS?

Distention and pain, flatulence, disordered bowel functions

19

What are extra intestinal causes of malabsorption?

Pancreatic or biliary secretion inadequacy

20

Deficiency in what enzymes can cause intestinal malabsorption?

Disaccharidase and lactase deficiencies

21

Celiac disease leads to?

Fat in stools, inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins, anemia, abdominal pain

22

What causes celiac?

Sensitivity to gluten, a part of it called gliaden

23

Gliaden is acted on by what enzyme?

Tissue transglutaminase

24

Serum tests for celiac look for?

Anti-gliadin and anti-tTg antibodies

25

Those with celiac may develop what skin condition?

Dermatitis herptiformis

26

What type of malignancy is associated with celiac?

Enteropathy associated t cell lymphoma

27

What is Whipple disease?

Malabsorption disease where mucosa is infiltrated by foamy macrophages with whippelli bacteria

28

T whippelli is positive for?

PAS

29

Where do hemorrhoids often form?

At the anorectal junction

30

What is the cause of internal hemorrhoids?

Portal hypertension

31

Ischemic colitis can lead to?

Transmural infarction