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Flashcards in GI-4 Deck (41):
1

What is the most common infectious cause of inflammatory bowel diseases?

Viral enterocolitis/gastroenteritis

2

How is bacterial enterocolitis treated?

Broad-spectrum antibiotics

3

What is the most common infectious disease the hospitalizes patients and what causes it?

Pseudomembranous colitis, caused by c difficile

4

What are 2 non-infectious/idiopathic causes of bowel disease?

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's

5

Ulcerative colitis begins in what region and ends in?

Rectum and ends in the cecum

6

What is usually spared in ulcerative colitis? This separates it from?

The anus and terminal ileum

Crohn's Disease

7

Flukes cause what illness?

Schistosomiasis

8

Entameba histlolytica causes? This leads to ulcers in?

Amebiasis

Ulcers around the ileocecal valve

9

What kind of cell is characteristic of giardia?

Owl eye cell

10

What are the 3 key characteristics of amebiasis?

1. Flask shaped ulcer
2. Erythrophagocytosis
3. Amoebic abscesses in the liver

11

In ulcerative colitis, the disease is horizontal or vertical?
What is toxic megacolon?

Horizontal

Toxic megacolon in when there is a massive buildup of gas in the transverse colon that can lead to peritonitis

12

How is Crohn's different from ulcerative colitis?

Vertical, discontinuous with skip areas of unaffected tissue

13

What type of ulcer is seen in Crohn's?

Discrete pathos that can lead to fissures and fistulas

14

What can form around the ileocecal valve in half of Crohn's cases?

Focal granulomas

15

What appears in Crohn's disease that is seen in sarcoidosis?

Sarcoid-like granulomas

16

Crohn's can involve what two areas that are not involved in ulcerative colitis?

Anus and small intestine

17

What antibodies are seen in UC and CD?

UC see ANCA autoantibodies
CD see antibodies to Saccharomyces cervisiae

18

Pain in joints or arthalgias are seen in UC or CD?

Both

19

Which UC or CD causes a higher risk of colon cancer?

UC

20

There is a higher risk of what in CD?

Anal and ileal disease

21

What is the most common kind of non-neoplastic polyp?

Hyperplastic

22

What are the two kinds of neoplastic polyps?

Adenoma and lymphomas

23

Familial adenomatous polyposis is called what when found in the colorectal area?

Gardener's syndrome

24

How is Peutz-Jeghers inherited and what gene is affected?

Autosomal dominant mutation of STK11

25

Peutz-Jeghers causes? Where does cancer develop?

Hamartomatous polyps with no malignant potential in the small intestine, stomach, and colon

Develops near the polyps not in it unlike FAP

26

How does peutz-jeghers present itself orally?

Peri-oral pigmentation or freckles

27

What 2 molecular events predispose a person to adenocarcinoma of the colorectal?

APC pathway and microsatellite instability

28

What is APC pathway and it may be inherited with?

Chromosomal instability that is inherited with FAP

29

What is micro satellite instability and what is it inherited with?

DNA mismatch repair that is inherited with Lynch Syndrome

30

When does obstruction occur in adenocarcinoma of the colon?

When the cancer is in the transverse or left colon

31

In adenocarcinoma of the rectum barium will show?

Apple core stricture

32

Carcinoid tumors are derived from? They often cause?

Neuroendocrine cells, intussception because they occur near the ileocecal valve

33

What 2 things can cause acute pancreatitis?

Alcoholism and gallstones

34

How do alcohol and gall stones cause pancreatitis?

Alcohol can change the viscosity of the secretions and the enzymes get stuck and activated within the pancreas itself

35

Acute pancreatitis can lead to what more severe conditions?

Generalized systemic inflammation, vasodilation and permeability, shock and adult respiratory distress

36

What is chronic pancreatitis?

Repeated bouts of mild to moderate inflammation

37

Over time chronic pancreatitis leads to?

Fibrosis and fewer enzymes produced leading to malabsorption

38

What mutations are associated with pancreatic tumors?

Kras and p53

39

Pancreatic endocrine tumors are derived from? What happens when there are beta cell tumors?

Islet cells

beta cell tumors leads to insulin hyper secretion and hypoglycemia

40

When does pancreatic cancer present itself?

Only once the patient has severe pain or metastasis

41

What is the triad of symptoms seen in pancreatic tumors?

Attacks of hypoglycemia, precipitated by fasting, CNS symptoms