Flashcards in GI-4 Deck (41):
What is the most common infectious cause of inflammatory bowel diseases?
How is bacterial enterocolitis treated?
What is the most common infectious disease the hospitalizes patients and what causes it?
Pseudomembranous colitis, caused by c difficile
What are 2 non-infectious/idiopathic causes of bowel disease?
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's
Ulcerative colitis begins in what region and ends in?
Rectum and ends in the cecum
What is usually spared in ulcerative colitis? This separates it from?
The anus and terminal ileum
Flukes cause what illness?
Entameba histlolytica causes? This leads to ulcers in?
Ulcers around the ileocecal valve
What kind of cell is characteristic of giardia?
Owl eye cell
What are the 3 key characteristics of amebiasis?
1. Flask shaped ulcer
3. Amoebic abscesses in the liver
In ulcerative colitis, the disease is horizontal or vertical?
What is toxic megacolon?
Toxic megacolon in when there is a massive buildup of gas in the transverse colon that can lead to peritonitis
How is Crohn's different from ulcerative colitis?
Vertical, discontinuous with skip areas of unaffected tissue
What type of ulcer is seen in Crohn's?
Discrete pathos that can lead to fissures and fistulas
What can form around the ileocecal valve in half of Crohn's cases?
What appears in Crohn's disease that is seen in sarcoidosis?
Crohn's can involve what two areas that are not involved in ulcerative colitis?
Anus and small intestine
What antibodies are seen in UC and CD?
UC see ANCA autoantibodies
CD see antibodies to Saccharomyces cervisiae
Pain in joints or arthalgias are seen in UC or CD?
Which UC or CD causes a higher risk of colon cancer?
There is a higher risk of what in CD?
Anal and ileal disease
What is the most common kind of non-neoplastic polyp?
What are the two kinds of neoplastic polyps?
Adenoma and lymphomas
Familial adenomatous polyposis is called what when found in the colorectal area?
How is Peutz-Jeghers inherited and what gene is affected?
Autosomal dominant mutation of STK11
Peutz-Jeghers causes? Where does cancer develop?
Hamartomatous polyps with no malignant potential in the small intestine, stomach, and colon
Develops near the polyps not in it unlike FAP
How does peutz-jeghers present itself orally?
Peri-oral pigmentation or freckles
What 2 molecular events predispose a person to adenocarcinoma of the colorectal?
APC pathway and microsatellite instability
What is APC pathway and it may be inherited with?
Chromosomal instability that is inherited with FAP
What is micro satellite instability and what is it inherited with?
DNA mismatch repair that is inherited with Lynch Syndrome
When does obstruction occur in adenocarcinoma of the colon?
When the cancer is in the transverse or left colon
In adenocarcinoma of the rectum barium will show?
Apple core stricture
Carcinoid tumors are derived from? They often cause?
Neuroendocrine cells, intussception because they occur near the ileocecal valve
What 2 things can cause acute pancreatitis?
Alcoholism and gallstones
How do alcohol and gall stones cause pancreatitis?
Alcohol can change the viscosity of the secretions and the enzymes get stuck and activated within the pancreas itself
Acute pancreatitis can lead to what more severe conditions?
Generalized systemic inflammation, vasodilation and permeability, shock and adult respiratory distress
What is chronic pancreatitis?
Repeated bouts of mild to moderate inflammation
Over time chronic pancreatitis leads to?
Fibrosis and fewer enzymes produced leading to malabsorption
What mutations are associated with pancreatic tumors?
Kras and p53
Pancreatic endocrine tumors are derived from? What happens when there are beta cell tumors?
beta cell tumors leads to insulin hyper secretion and hypoglycemia
When does pancreatic cancer present itself?
Only once the patient has severe pain or metastasis