Male Genital Diseases Flashcards Preview

Systemic Pathology Test 2 > Male Genital Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Genital Diseases Deck (57):
1

The surface of the penis is made of what tissue?

Squamous epithelium

2

What are 2 congenital anomalies we studied?

Hypospadias ventral opening (more common)
Epispadias dorsal opening

3

The scientific name for genital warts is?

Condyloma acuminatum

4

Which types of HPV most often cause external genital warts?

Type 6, 11, 42, and 44 (HPV is often asymptomatic)

5

Which types are associated with cervical dysplasia and cervical carcinoma?

16, 18, 31, 33, 35

6

What types of cells are generated by HPV that can be considered low grade dysplasia?

Koilocytes

7

What can confer protection from SCC of the penis?

Circumcision

8

What is the most important type of HPV that leads to SCC?

Type 16

9

What are other risk factors for SCC of penis?

Smoking and being between 40-70

10

The prostate is made of?

Fibromuscular stroma with branching glands

11

What zone of the prostate surrounds the urethra?

Transitional zone

12

What zone surrounds the ejaculatory ducts?

Central zone

13

Benign prostatic hypertrophy can be seen in what percentage over men over 40 and 90?

20% and 90% respectively

14

In what zones does benign prostatic hypertrophy usually occur?

Transitional and central

15

Is prostate hypertrophy a risk factor for prostate cancer?

No

16

How is BPH treated?

Drugs to shrink the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate

17

How does prostate cancer rank as far as killing men?

2nd most common cause of cancer death

18

Which race is most prone to prostate cancer? How do hormone levels affect it?

African Americans most likely to get prostate cancer especially if over 50. High testosterone increases risk

19

How is prostate cancer detected?

1. Digital rectal exam
2. Prostate specific antigen levels elevated however this doesn't always mean anything, someone can be normal and have cancer or have high levels and not have it

3. If either of these is abnormal perform a transrectal needle biopsy

20

In what zone of the prostate does cancer usually occur?

The peripheral zone

21

What is grade 3 primary on the gleason grading system?

Individual round glands that are separate from each other

22

What is grade 4 primary?

Fused glands with a cribiform pattern

23

What is grade 5 primary?

No coherent gland architecture

24

What do you do if it looks mixed?

Add the 2 grades that it looks like however the primary determines how aggressive it is even if two add up to the same number for example 4+3 is more aggressive than 3+4

25

What is the typical weight of the testis and which is heavier?

15-19 g with the right one being heavier

26

Prostate cancer typically spread to?

The axial skeleton, pelvis and spine

27

Where is sperm made?

Seminiferous tubules

28

Where does sperm mature?

Epididymis

29

The testes are surrounded by?

Tunica

30

What is cryptorchidism?

Undescended testis

31

What is true cryptorchidism?

The testis does not descend down the inguinal canal, gets stuck

32

What is ectopic cryptorchidism?

Testis forms somewhere other than where its supposed to

33

Cryptorchidism impairs what process and increases risk for?

Impairs spermatogeneis and increases risk for testicular cancer (seminomas)

34

How is cryptorchidism treated?

Waiting, most descend on their own. Otherwise, orchipexy

35

How does the size of an undescended testis compare?

Smaller

36

Most cases of testicular torsion are due to?

Congenital malformations where the testis is not sufficiently anchored to the inner scrotal wall

37

Since it is insufficiently anchored, what happens?

Rotates around the spermatic cord causing ischemia

38

Testicular cancer is seen in what age group? How does it present itself?

18-40, presents as a painless mass. May find abdominal masses in the late stages

39

What type of testicular tumor is most common?

Germ cell

40

What are risk factors for germ cell tumors?

Cryptorchidism, p53, and testicular dysgenesis

41

What is the most common type of germ cell tumor?

Seminoma

42

When does seminoma usually occur?

In one's 30's

43

Describe the gross appearance of a seminoma?

Gray/white
Solid, well-demarcated. lobulated mass
No hemorrhage or cystic change

44

How are non-seminomas named?

After what cell they look like

45

Relatively how many cases of cancer are embryonal carcinomas?

2% are pure but 85% have an embryonal component

46

What percentage of those with embryonal have metastasis?

65% have it at presentation

47

Yolk sac tumor is seen more often in whom?

Children under 3, GCT

48

What is the most common histology in yolk sac tumor? What other feature is present?

Microcystic histology.
Schiller-Duval bodies are seen as well

49

Choriocarcinoma has what affect on prognosis?

None, but it is often seen in mixed GCT

50

A choriocarcinoma mimics what structure and what hormone level is raised?

Mimics immature placental villi, increased HCG

51

What cells are seen in choriocarcinoma that stain for HCG?

Cytotrophoblasts and syncyiotrophoblasts

52

Teratoma is GCT or NGCT?

GCT, makes up 5%

53

Teratomas contain elements of what cell layers?

Ecto, meso, and endoderm

54

How does teratoma present itself in children and what is it associated with?

Presents as pure teratoma, associated with trisomy 21, klinefelter

55

Teratoma in children is benign, true or false?

True

56

In adults teratoma is benign or malignant?

Malignant

57

In adults is it pure or mixed?

Often part of mixed GCT