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Nursing Fundamentals II > GI - Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI - Anatomy Deck (83):
1

What part of the mouth breaks down food?

teeth

2

What is secreted in response to food?

saliva

3

What enzyme is in saliva?

amylase

4

What does amylase do?

breaks down food

5

Where does CHO digestion start?

mouth

6

Where is a bolus formed?

mouth

7

Where in the mouth does the bolus go?

propelled back to pharynx

8

dysphasia

- when the bolus has a problem going back to pharynx

9

Who evaluates swallowing?

speech therapy

10

Where is the esophagus located?

between pharynx and stomach

11

peristalsis

Contracts and relaxes to move bolus from pharynx to stomach

12

Cardiac/LES

- Sphincters
- Located at the bottom of esophagus/top of stomach
- Relaxes to allow food to pass to stomach
- Constricts to prevent acidic stomach contents from flowing into esophagus

13

Hiatal hernia

Protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the chest

14

How is a hiatal hernia treated?

surgically or with medicine

15

Hiatal hernia - symptoms

- Heartburn, belching (eructation), discomfort (pain), dysphagia, reflux of stomach acid to esophagus
- Symptoms similar to GERD

16

GERD

- Reflux product from stomach to esophagus
- Excessive relaxation of LES

17

What are some long term side effects of GERD?

cancer, destruction of esophagus, respiratory systems, asthma

18

GERD - symptoms

heartburn (dyspepsia), backward flow into the throat of food (regurgitation), gas (flatulence), chronic cough, asthma and chest pain

19

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist

- Role is to decrease amount of gastric acid
- treat GERD and hiatal hernia

20

Tagament

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist

21

Proton Pump Inh.

- Role is to block gastric acid
- Treat people that have issues with digestion of food
- Made for people who don't get better with Tagament or Zantac

22

What do you watch for in people that take proton pump inhibitors?

anemia

23

Zantac

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist

24

Pepcid

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist

25

Axid

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist

26

Nexium

Proton Pump Inh.

27

Prilosec

Proton Pump Inh.

28

Prevacid

Proton Pump Inh.

29

Aciphex

Proton Pump Inh.

30

Protonix

Proton Pump Inh.

31

Proton Pump Inh. - drug names

Nexium, Prilosec, Prevacid, Aciphex, Protonix

32

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonist - drug names

Tagament, Zantac, Pepcid, Axid

33

Carafate

- Repair something that is in existence
- Work at the site such as active ulcer or go to stomach, protect and coat it
- People do not experience pain when they eat

34

Cytotec

- Start on someone who is going to have meds that will upset stomach
- Protectant, doesn't do anything for someone that has an actual problem
- Use this about a week before starting meds that may cause upset stomach

35

What is the unintended use of cytotec?

correct male infertility

36

Where does bolus turn to chime?

stomach

37

chyme

bolus is mixed with gastric secretions and turns to liquid

38

Where does protein digestion start?

stomach

39

Where does CHO digestion end?

stomach

40

Where is cardiac valve located?

top of stomach

41

Where is pyloric valve located?

bottom of stomach

42

Where are parietal and chief cells located?

stomach

43

What do parietal cells secrete?

HCl and intrinsic factor

44

Where does intrinsic factor go?

small intestine to absorb B12

45

Pernicious anemia

malabsorption of B12, may lead to gastric cancer

46

What do chief cells secrete?

Pepsinogen

47

Pepsinogen

- Precursor to pepsin (digestive enzyme)
- Responsible to start protein digestion and end carb digestion

48

What is the purpose of stomach mucus?

- so the stomach doesn't digest itself
- protection

49

Pyloric stenosis

- pyloric valve not able to open
- 2 to 3 week old infants

50

How is pyloric stenosis diagnosed?

Dr feels for olive-like mass on stomach which is indicative of pyloric stenosis

51

How is pyloric stenosis treated?

surgery

52

What are the symptoms of pyloric stenosis?

Vomit (projectile), dehydration, weight loss, decreased urinary output

53

What connects the stomach to the large intestine?

small intestine

54

What is the function of the small intestine?

responsible for movement, absorption and digestion of food (chyme)

55

What are the 3 segments of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum and ileum

56

duodenum

calcium and iron absorption, neutralize acid, largest number of ulcers happen here

57

jejunum

absorption of fat, proteins and carbs

58

Ileum

absorbs b12 and bile salt

59

What diseases will incur nutritional losss?

Chron's, ulcer colitis

60

What is sent to from the small intestine to the gall bladder that causes horrible pain?

CCK

61

What is the function of the large intestine?

movement, absorption and elimination

62

What happens to the reabsorbed water/electrolytes?

put into vascular system

63

What happens to make stool more solid?

water and electrolytes are reabsorbed in large intestines

64

How is ostomy placement decided?

place of injury

65

Segments of large intestines

cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum and anus

66

Where is stool liquid?

ascending large intestine; don't want colostomy here

67

where is stool semi-fluid to semi-mushy?

transverse large intestine

68

where is stool formed?

descending large intestine; want colostomy here

69

Where can you train ostomy?

descending large intestine; exception rather than rule

70

Where is a continent ostomy located?

descending large intestine; may still have to wear a bag

71

What does the salivary glands produce?

saliva

72

What enzyme is present in saliva?

amylase

73

What does amylase break down?

CHO

74

What does the liver produce and secrete?

bile

75

Why do we need bile?

digests fat

76

Where is bile sent to the gallbladder?

storage and concentration

77

Where are Kupffer cells located?

liver

78

What do Kupffer cells do?

eat bacteria and anemic RBC

79

What does the liver metabolize?

proteins considered vital for human survival

80

What does the liver store and release?

glycogen for metabolism of CHO

81

What does the gallbladder do with bile?

Collects, concentrates and stores bile from liver

82

Does the pancreas have an exocrine or endocrine function in the GI system?

Exocrine - secrete digestive enzymes

83

What digestive enzyme does the pancreas excrete?

amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase