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Nursing Fundamentals II > GI - Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI - Nutrition Deck (125):
1

What is nutrition?

- It is the process of taking in food and fluids, converting the nutrients into useable forms by the process known as metabolism.
- Study of food and how it affects the human body and influences health.

2

What is the purpose of the food pyramid?

Maintain adequate nutrition

3

What is the lowest serving for?

children

4

What is the highest serving for?

adult male

5

What is serving size for breads, cereal, rice, and pasta?

6 oz/day

6

What is the serving size for vegetables?

2.5 cups everyday

7

What is the serving size for fruits?

2 cups every day

8

What is the serving size for dairy?

3 cups every day

9

What is the serving size for meats?

5.5 ounces per day

10

What is the serving size for fats?

Sparing

11

Decrease or increase total CHO intake?

increase, good CHO

12

Decrease or increase cholesterol intake?

decrease

13

What total do you want on a cholesterol test?

less than 200

14

Decrease or increase intake of refined sugar?

decrease

15

Decrease or increase fiber?

increase

16

Decrease or increase sodium?

decrease

17

Why should you limit salt-cured, smoke and charbroiled foods?

- Comes from American Cancer Society
- Connection to some types of cancer

18

How much ETOH/alcohol should you consume?

moderate amounts

19

What is the recommended amount of caffeine consumption?

no more than 4 cups per day

20

What is the job of protein?

build and repair tissues and cells

21

When does the need for protein increase?

when physical stress is present

22

When does the body use protein for energy?

body uses CHO and then fat before protein

23

How are proteins built?

amino acids

24

How many amino acids do you need to build a protein?

20

25

How many amino acids are essential?

9

26

How many amino acids are nonessential?

11

27

Where do you find essential amino acids?

food

28

Where do you find nonessential amino acids?

made in liver

29

What do complete proteins contain?

all 9 essential amino acids

30

Where are complete proteins found?

animal sources and soybeans

31

Where are incomplete proteins derived from?

plant sources such as: cereal, grains, legumes, and some vegetables

32

How many calories should be from protein?

10-15% of total calories

33

How large is a serving of protein?

One serving of protein is about the size of a deck of cards or about 3 ounces

34

Protein deficiency

- starvation
- change in hair and skin
- impaired growth and development
- liver becomes fatty and is unable to function

35

Protein excess

- causes liver and kidney problems
- adds increased fat to the diet that can cause heart disease and possibly attributes to some cancers

36

What is the main source of energy?

CHO, provides quick energy

37

How many calories should be from CHO?

50-60% of total calories

38

What is the job of CHO?

- provide energy
- assists with the function of organs, CNS, and muscles
- assists with immunity
- assists with growth of tissues

39

How many calories are in 1 gram of CHO?

4 calories

40

How many calories are in 1 gram of protein?

4 calories

41

What are the 3 types of CHO?

- simple CHO
- complex CHO
- fiber

42

What are simple CHO?

- sugar
- monosaccharide - one unit
- disaccharides - two unit

43

What are complex CHO?

- fruit, vegetables
- polysaccharides - long chain of saccharides

44

What is fiber?

- polysaccharides
- indigestible "fibrous skeleton" of plant foods

45

Why do Americans need to reduce their intake of fats?

- rise in obesity
- breast and colon cancer
- hypertension, CV disease
- stroke

46

Are fats a necessary part of the diet?

yes

47

What provides the most concentrated from of energy?

fat

48

How many calories are in 1 gram of fate?

9

49

What are some functions of fate?

- Provides insulation and helps maintain body temperature
- Protects body organs
- Assists in transmission of nerve impulses

50

How many fat calories should you consume?

25-30% of total calories with only 10% being from saturated fats and 20-25% healthy fats

51

What is cholesterol?

Component of every cell in body, ingredient of bile (digestion of fat), precursor to steroid hormones

52

What contributes to atherosclerosis?

when lipid metabolism is "disordered"

53

How can fat be a form of self protection?

- put on some brown fat for the winter
- people who work outside put on more brown fat

54

What are ketones?

end products of fatty acid breakdown

55

Who may see ketones in their urine?

athletes

56

Are vitamin and mineral supplements necessary?

not usually

57

Each vitamin and mineral are responsible for...

a specific function and should be attainable by eating a normal diet.

58

What are water soluble vitamins?

B & C

59

What happens to excess water soluble vitamins?

excrete in urine

60

Can you build a toxic level of vitamin B & C?

no, excess is excreted

61

What vitamins are fat soluble?

A, D, E & K

62

Can fat soluble vitamins become toxic?

yes; can be stored & not readily excreted, build up occurs

63

Vitamin A function

maintains cells and mucous membranes, assists with night vision, and assists with immunity

64

Vitamin A sources

liver, dark green leafy vegetables, deep orange fruit and vegetables

65

Vitamin E function

antioxidant, protect RBC and muscle tissue cell

66

Vitamin E sources

vegetable oil, nuts, milk, eggs, muscle meats, fish, wheat and rice germ, green leafy vegetable

67

Vitamin K function

synthesis of clotting factors, bone development

68

Vitamin K sources

green leafy vegetables, liver

69

Vitamin D function

regulates blood Ca levels and rate of deposit/reabsorption of Ca in bones

70

Vitamin D sources

fish liver oil, fish, fortified milk, sunlight exposure

71

B1-Thiamine function

cellular metabolism, nervous system function, gastrointestinal system function, cardiovascular system function

72

B1-Thiamine sources

whole grain, enriched cereal, beef, pork, liver, beans, nuts, peas

73

B2-Riboflavin function

cellular metabolism, antioxidant, tissue health and growth

74

B2-Riboflavin sources

milk, cheese, eggs, green vegetables, whole grain, enriched grains, bread, organ meats, poultry, fish

75

B3-Niacin function

cellular metabolism to produce energy

76

B3-Niacin sources

enriched breads and cereals, chicken, tuna, liver, peanuts, dairy products

77

B6-Pyridoxine function

protein (and some carbohydrate) metabolism, RBC production and neurotransmitter synthesis

78

B6-Pyridoxine sources

meats, poultry, fish, beans, nuts, seeds, dairy products, enriched cereals

79

B12-Cobalmin function

metabolic reactions, maintain myelin sheath, hemoglobin synthesis

80

B12-Cobalmin sources

dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, liver, milk, cheese, eggs

81

Folic Acid function

cellular metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis, hemoglobin formation

82

Folic Acid sources

green leafy vegetables, asparagus, liver, yeast, eggs, beans, fruits, enriched cereals

83

Vitamin C-Ascorbic Acid function

Collagen synthesis "cementing" substance for capillary walls, antioxidants, iron absorption, immune function

84

Vitamin C-Ascorbic Acid sources

citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, green vegetables, cauliflower

85

Calcium function

bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular metabolism, heart action

86

Calcium sources

Dairy products, sardines, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, whole grains, egg yolks, legumes, nuts, fortified products

87

Magnesium function

Aids thyroid secretion, maintains normal basal metabolic rate, activates enzymes for carbohydrate and protein metabolism, nerve and muscle function, cardiac function

88

Magnesium sources

whole grains, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, lima beans, broccoli, squash, potatoes

89

K+ function

intracellular fluid control, acid-base balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, glycogen formation, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, blood pressure regulation

90

K+ sources

unprocessed foods, especially fruits, any vegetables, meats, potatoes, avocados, legumes, milk, molasses, shellfish, dates, figs

91

Na function

water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, nerve transmission, convulsions

92

Na sources

table salt, milk, meat, eggs, baking soda, baking powder, celery, spinach, carrots, beets

93

Iodine function

synthesis of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine

94

Iodine sources

iodized salt, salt water fish, dairy products, enriched breads, fortified cereals

95

Iron function

synthesis of hemoglobin, general metabolism (glucose), antibody production, drug detoxification in the liver

96

Iron sources

meats, eggs, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, enriched breads, fortified cereals

97

Zinc function

cofactor for many enzymes involved in growth, insulin storage immunity, alcohol metabolism, sexual development and reproduction

98

Zinc sources

primarily meats and seafood; also legumes, peas, and whole grains

99

What is most vital to sustain life?

water

100

What percentage of the body is made of water?

50-60%

101

What is the ratio of water to calorie?

1 cc water for each calorie taken in

102

Do you increase water for people that are ill?

yes

103

Can water be stored in the body?

no

104

How much more water should be taken in beyond what is output?

500 mL

105

Example of insensible fluid loss

breathing, fever, digestion

106

What alterations in nutritional needs does an infant have?

liquid, protein, carbs, not as many calories, eat more frequently, make sure they have strong solid nutrition to make sure that they develop normally

107

What happens to an infant that suffers from malnutrition?

§ May have cognitive delays if malnourished

108

What alterations in nutritional needs does a teen have?

higher demand for higher calories, strong need for calories, lots of growth

109

Why does a teen need additional calories?

physical changes

110

What alterations in nutritional needs do the elderly have?

- need less but healthy calories
- past 65 yr start to lose taste buds
- like things that are really sweet, sour, salty etc…
- look for nutritional values

111

What are some signs of nutrition deficit?

- muscle wasting, skin, hair, nails, eyes, and mouth
- assess mentation and cognition
- signs of impaired healing
- know what would be normal BMI

112

What does albumen show?

tells us about level of nutrition

113

What do you do if albumen is abnormal?

look at pre-albumen

114

What does pre-albumen show?

- if this is low too it means that they are in acute starvation
- anorexia, bulimia

115

What do you look for in urine for altered nutritional status?

ketones and protein

116

Why would you do a calorie count?

- reason for change in weight
- reason for diabetic reactions
- reason for impaired healing
- need for supplements

117

What is a calorie count?

- record everything that goes in their mouth
- 24 hours, 3 days, 1 week

118

Who analyzes the calorie count?

dietician

119

What is considered intake?

- IVF
- Blood transfusion
- Irrigation Solution - cath, ng tube
- Fluids with meds, NG, and GT

120

What should output be in 24 hours?

1000-1500 mL

121

what does output include?

all drains and tubes

122

What is insensible output?

- something you can't measure
- lose by respiration, diarrhea, etc...

123

What is sensible output?

- something you can measure

124

What do you do for people with diuretic therapy?

- watch fluid intake
- watch weight and mucus membranes
- output will be more

125

Why does a postoperative patient need more fluid?

- drains, blood loss, vomiting
- give more fluid unless there is a contraindication