Flashcards in GI - Nutrition Deck (125):
What is nutrition?
- It is the process of taking in food and fluids, converting the nutrients into useable forms by the process known as metabolism.
- Study of food and how it affects the human body and influences health.
What is the purpose of the food pyramid?
Maintain adequate nutrition
What is the lowest serving for?
What is the highest serving for?
What is serving size for breads, cereal, rice, and pasta?
What is the serving size for vegetables?
2.5 cups everyday
What is the serving size for fruits?
2 cups every day
What is the serving size for dairy?
3 cups every day
What is the serving size for meats?
5.5 ounces per day
What is the serving size for fats?
Decrease or increase total CHO intake?
increase, good CHO
Decrease or increase cholesterol intake?
What total do you want on a cholesterol test?
less than 200
Decrease or increase intake of refined sugar?
Decrease or increase fiber?
Decrease or increase sodium?
Why should you limit salt-cured, smoke and charbroiled foods?
- Comes from American Cancer Society
- Connection to some types of cancer
How much ETOH/alcohol should you consume?
What is the recommended amount of caffeine consumption?
no more than 4 cups per day
What is the job of protein?
build and repair tissues and cells
When does the need for protein increase?
when physical stress is present
When does the body use protein for energy?
body uses CHO and then fat before protein
How are proteins built?
How many amino acids do you need to build a protein?
How many amino acids are essential?
How many amino acids are nonessential?
Where do you find essential amino acids?
Where do you find nonessential amino acids?
made in liver
What do complete proteins contain?
all 9 essential amino acids
Where are complete proteins found?
animal sources and soybeans
Where are incomplete proteins derived from?
plant sources such as: cereal, grains, legumes, and some vegetables
How many calories should be from protein?
10-15% of total calories
How large is a serving of protein?
One serving of protein is about the size of a deck of cards or about 3 ounces
- change in hair and skin
- impaired growth and development
- liver becomes fatty and is unable to function
- causes liver and kidney problems
- adds increased fat to the diet that can cause heart disease and possibly attributes to some cancers
What is the main source of energy?
CHO, provides quick energy
How many calories should be from CHO?
50-60% of total calories
What is the job of CHO?
- provide energy
- assists with the function of organs, CNS, and muscles
- assists with immunity
- assists with growth of tissues
How many calories are in 1 gram of CHO?
How many calories are in 1 gram of protein?
What are the 3 types of CHO?
- simple CHO
- complex CHO
What are simple CHO?
- monosaccharide - one unit
- disaccharides - two unit
What are complex CHO?
- fruit, vegetables
- polysaccharides - long chain of saccharides
What is fiber?
- indigestible "fibrous skeleton" of plant foods
Why do Americans need to reduce their intake of fats?
- rise in obesity
- breast and colon cancer
- hypertension, CV disease
Are fats a necessary part of the diet?
What provides the most concentrated from of energy?
How many calories are in 1 gram of fate?
What are some functions of fate?
- Provides insulation and helps maintain body temperature
- Protects body organs
- Assists in transmission of nerve impulses
How many fat calories should you consume?
25-30% of total calories with only 10% being from saturated fats and 20-25% healthy fats
What is cholesterol?
Component of every cell in body, ingredient of bile (digestion of fat), precursor to steroid hormones
What contributes to atherosclerosis?
when lipid metabolism is "disordered"
How can fat be a form of self protection?
- put on some brown fat for the winter
- people who work outside put on more brown fat
What are ketones?
end products of fatty acid breakdown
Who may see ketones in their urine?
Are vitamin and mineral supplements necessary?
Each vitamin and mineral are responsible for...
a specific function and should be attainable by eating a normal diet.
What are water soluble vitamins?
B & C
What happens to excess water soluble vitamins?
excrete in urine
Can you build a toxic level of vitamin B & C?
no, excess is excreted
What vitamins are fat soluble?
A, D, E & K
Can fat soluble vitamins become toxic?
yes; can be stored & not readily excreted, build up occurs
Vitamin A function
maintains cells and mucous membranes, assists with night vision, and assists with immunity
Vitamin A sources
liver, dark green leafy vegetables, deep orange fruit and vegetables
Vitamin E function
antioxidant, protect RBC and muscle tissue cell
Vitamin E sources
vegetable oil, nuts, milk, eggs, muscle meats, fish, wheat and rice germ, green leafy vegetable
Vitamin K function
synthesis of clotting factors, bone development
Vitamin K sources
green leafy vegetables, liver
Vitamin D function
regulates blood Ca levels and rate of deposit/reabsorption of Ca in bones
Vitamin D sources
fish liver oil, fish, fortified milk, sunlight exposure
cellular metabolism, nervous system function, gastrointestinal system function, cardiovascular system function
whole grain, enriched cereal, beef, pork, liver, beans, nuts, peas
cellular metabolism, antioxidant, tissue health and growth
milk, cheese, eggs, green vegetables, whole grain, enriched grains, bread, organ meats, poultry, fish
cellular metabolism to produce energy
enriched breads and cereals, chicken, tuna, liver, peanuts, dairy products
protein (and some carbohydrate) metabolism, RBC production and neurotransmitter synthesis
meats, poultry, fish, beans, nuts, seeds, dairy products, enriched cereals
metabolic reactions, maintain myelin sheath, hemoglobin synthesis
dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, liver, milk, cheese, eggs
Folic Acid function
cellular metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis, hemoglobin formation
Folic Acid sources
green leafy vegetables, asparagus, liver, yeast, eggs, beans, fruits, enriched cereals
Vitamin C-Ascorbic Acid function
Collagen synthesis "cementing" substance for capillary walls, antioxidants, iron absorption, immune function
Vitamin C-Ascorbic Acid sources
citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, green vegetables, cauliflower
bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular metabolism, heart action
Dairy products, sardines, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, whole grains, egg yolks, legumes, nuts, fortified products
Aids thyroid secretion, maintains normal basal metabolic rate, activates enzymes for carbohydrate and protein metabolism, nerve and muscle function, cardiac function
whole grains, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, lima beans, broccoli, squash, potatoes
intracellular fluid control, acid-base balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, glycogen formation, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, blood pressure regulation
unprocessed foods, especially fruits, any vegetables, meats, potatoes, avocados, legumes, milk, molasses, shellfish, dates, figs
water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, nerve transmission, convulsions
table salt, milk, meat, eggs, baking soda, baking powder, celery, spinach, carrots, beets
synthesis of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine
iodized salt, salt water fish, dairy products, enriched breads, fortified cereals
synthesis of hemoglobin, general metabolism (glucose), antibody production, drug detoxification in the liver
meats, eggs, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, enriched breads, fortified cereals
cofactor for many enzymes involved in growth, insulin storage immunity, alcohol metabolism, sexual development and reproduction
primarily meats and seafood; also legumes, peas, and whole grains
What is most vital to sustain life?
What percentage of the body is made of water?
What is the ratio of water to calorie?
1 cc water for each calorie taken in
Do you increase water for people that are ill?
Can water be stored in the body?
How much more water should be taken in beyond what is output?
Example of insensible fluid loss
breathing, fever, digestion
What alterations in nutritional needs does an infant have?
liquid, protein, carbs, not as many calories, eat more frequently, make sure they have strong solid nutrition to make sure that they develop normally
What happens to an infant that suffers from malnutrition?
§ May have cognitive delays if malnourished
What alterations in nutritional needs does a teen have?
higher demand for higher calories, strong need for calories, lots of growth
Why does a teen need additional calories?
What alterations in nutritional needs do the elderly have?
- need less but healthy calories
- past 65 yr start to lose taste buds
- like things that are really sweet, sour, salty etc…
- look for nutritional values
What are some signs of nutrition deficit?
- muscle wasting, skin, hair, nails, eyes, and mouth
- assess mentation and cognition
- signs of impaired healing
- know what would be normal BMI
What does albumen show?
tells us about level of nutrition
What do you do if albumen is abnormal?
look at pre-albumen
What does pre-albumen show?
- if this is low too it means that they are in acute starvation
- anorexia, bulimia
What do you look for in urine for altered nutritional status?
ketones and protein
Why would you do a calorie count?
- reason for change in weight
- reason for diabetic reactions
- reason for impaired healing
- need for supplements
What is a calorie count?
- record everything that goes in their mouth
- 24 hours, 3 days, 1 week
Who analyzes the calorie count?
What is considered intake?
- Blood transfusion
- Irrigation Solution - cath, ng tube
- Fluids with meds, NG, and GT
What should output be in 24 hours?
what does output include?
all drains and tubes
What is insensible output?
- something you can't measure
- lose by respiration, diarrhea, etc...
What is sensible output?
- something you can measure
What do you do for people with diuretic therapy?
- watch fluid intake
- watch weight and mucus membranes
- output will be more