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Nursing Fundamentals II > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (220):
1

Anterior Pituitary Gland - hormones

1. growth hormone

2

growth hormone (somatotropin) - function

1. anterior pituitary

3

growth hormone (somatotropin) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

4

growth hormone (somatotropin) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

5

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - function

1. anterior pituitary

6

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

7

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

8

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - function

1. anterior pituitary

9

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

10

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

11

luteinizing hormone (LH) - function

1. anterior pituitary

12

luteinizing hormone (LH) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

13

luteinizing hormone (LH) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

14

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - function

1. anterior pituitary

15

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

16

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

17

prolactin - function

1. anterior pituitary

18

prolactin - excess

1. anterior pituitary

19

prolactin - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

20

melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) - function

1. anterior pituitary

21

melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) - excess

1. anterior pituitary

22

melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) - deficit

1. anterior pituitary

23

posterior pituitary gland - hormone

1. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

24

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - function

1. posterior pituitary

25

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - excess

1. posterior pituitary

26

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - deficit

1. posterior pituitary

27

oxytocin - function

1. posterior pituitary

28

oxytocin - excess

1. posterior pituitary

29

oxytocin - deficit

1. posterior pituitary

30

thyroid - hormone

1. thyroxine (T3 & T4)

31

thyroxine (T3 & T4) - function

1. thyroid

32

thyroxine (T3 & T4) - excess

1. thyroid

33

thyroxine (T3 & T4) - deficit

1. thyroid

34

calcitonin - function

1. thyroid

35

calcitonin - excess

1. thyroid

36

calcitonin - deficit

1. thyroid

37

parathyroid - horomone

parathyroid (PTH)

38

parathyroid (PTH) - function

1. parathyroid

39

parathyroid (PTH) - excess

1. parathyroid

40

parathyroid (PTH) - deficit

1. parathyroid

41

adrenal cortex - hormones

1. glucocorticoids

42

Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone) - function

1. adrenal cortex

43

Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone - excess

1. adrenal cortex

44

Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone- deficit

1. adrenal cortex

45

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone, Deoxycorticosterone) - function

1. adrenal cortex

46

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone, Deoxycorticosterone) - excess

1. adrenal cortex

47

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone, Deoxycorticosterone) - deficit

1. adrenal cortex

48

sex hormones (androgen & estrogen) - function

1. adrenal cortex

49

sex hormones (androgen & estrogen) - excess

1. adrenal cortex

50

sex hormones (androgen & estrogen)- deficit

1. adrenal cortex

51

adrenal medulla - hormones

1. epinephrine & adrenaline

52

epinephrine (adrenaline) - function

1. adrenal medulla

53

epinephrine (adrenaline) - excess

1. adrenal medulla

54

norepinephrine - function

1. adrenal medulla

55

norepinephrine - excess

1. adrenal medulla

56

norepinephrine - deficit

1. adrenal medulla

57

pancreas - hormone

1. insulin

58

insulin - function

1. pancreas

59

insulin - excess

1. pancreas

60

insulin - deficit

1. pancreas

61

ovaries - hormone

1. estrogen

62

estrogen & progesterone - function

1. ovaries

63

estrogen & progesterone - excess

1. ovaries

64

estrogen & progesterone - deficit

1. ovaries

65

testes - hormone

1. testosterone

66

testosterone - function

1. testes

67

testosterone - excess

1. testes

68

testosterone - deficit

1. testes

69

thymus - hormone

1. thymopoietin

70

thymopoietin - function

1. thymus

71

thymopoietin - excess

1. thymus

72

thymopoietin - deficit

1. thymus

73

pineal - hormone

1. melatonin

74

melatonin - function

1. pineal

75

melatonin - excess

1. pineal gland

76

melatonin - deficit

1. pineal gland

77

epinephrine (adrenaline) - deficit

1. adrenal medulla

78

How are hormones transported?

via the circulatory system to the target tissue

79

Where are the hormones transported?

to the target tissue

80

How are hormones classified?

molecular structure

81

What are steroids made of?

cholesterol

82

Are steroids soluble in water?

no

83

How are steroids carried in circulation?

proteins

84

what is an example of a peptide?

insulin with a rapid response time

85

what is an example of an amino acid derivatives?

thyroid hormones and catcholamines.

86

what is the response time of amino acid derivatives?

immediate

87

what system does the endocrine system work on?

negative feedback

88

what are the two major regulatory systems in the body?

endocrine and nervous

89

do endocrine glands have a physical connection?

no

90

do endocrine glands have ducts?

no

91

do hormones have a specific target?

yes; lock and key system

92

another name for pituitary gland

hypophysis or master gland

93

what gland tells other glands to secret hormones and when to hold back?

pituitary

94

where is the pituitary gland located?

Very small about the size of a pea and is located in the brain below the hypothalmus

95

what is the infundibulum?

The pituitary gland and the hypothalmus are connected by a stalk known as the infundibulum

96

what are the two parts of the pituitary?

1. anterior or adenohypophysis

97

If the patient experiences a problem within the posterior pituitary gland the patient will have problems with...

fluid and electrolyte imbalance

98

where is the thyroid located?

Looks like a butterfly and has two lobes that sit on either side of the trachea

99

isthmus

connects the two lobes of the thyroid

100

what is stored in the thyroid?

iodine

101

what are some symptoms of a goiter?

may impede respiratory system, crowd trachea or become hypo/hyper thyroid

102

what controls BMR?

thyroid

103

where is the parathyroid located?

posterior wall of the thyroid gland

104

Does the parathyroid work separately from the thyroid?

yes

105

how many parathyroid glands are there?

usually 4 to 6

106

what does parahormone (PH) regulate?

Ca & Ph in the blood

107

what is a complication of thyroid surgery?

Hypocalcemia

108

symptoms of hypocalcemia

cardiac conditions, muscle twitching, jumpy and irritable, spasms

109

what glands make up the adrenal glands

1. Adrenal Medulla Gland

110

where are the adrenal glands located?

Two small glands located on top of each kidney-one gland/kidney

111

do the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex work independently of each other?

yes

112

what is required if adrenal glands are removed?

hormone therapy

113

what portion of the pancreas belongs to the endocrine system?

islets of langerhans

114

what does pancreas secrete?

insulin and glucagon

115

where is the thymus gland located?

upper part of the thoracic cavity above the heart

116

is the thymus important to the immune system?

yes

117

why is there increased infection in infants and older adults?

underdeveloped and decreased thymus

118

where is the pineal gland located?

Small pine-coned shaped gland located behind the mid-brain

119

melatonin fluctuates by what in a person with normal vision?

#NAME?

120

melatonin fluctuates by what in a person with without vision?

-fluctuate 24.7 hr cycle

121

where are ovaries located?

One on each side of the uterus which are the size and shape of an almond

122

where do women get testosterone from?

pituitary

123

where are testes located?

Two small glands located in the scrotum

124

where do men get estrogen and progesterone from?

pituitary

125

hypothalamus - function

secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones to control secretion of hormones from the anterior and posterior pituitary gland

126

hypothalamus - excess

pituitary dysfunction

127

hypothalamus - deficit

pituitary dysfunction

128

pancreas (beta cells) - function

#NAME?

129

pancreas (beta cells) - excess

Hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia

130

pancreas (beta cells) - deficit

Diabetes Mellitus

131

pancreas (alpha cells) - function

Glucagon-raises blood glucose levels by promoting hepatic glyocogenolysis and promotes glycogenesis; islets of langerhans

132

pancreas (alpha cells) - excess

glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia

133

pancreas (alpha cells) - deficit

under investigation but probably hypoglycemia

134

what should someone due with "true hypoglycemia"?

eat 6 times/day

135

if blood sugar is too low the body should..

produce glucagon

136

pancreas (delta cells) - function

inhibits diverse endocrine functions and inhibits the release of insulin, glucagon, and somatotropin

137

pancreas (delta cells) - excess

Hyperglycemia

138

pancreas (delta cells) - deficit

unknown

139

pancreas (delta cells)

Somatostatin

140

pancreas (beta cells)

insulin

141

pancreas (alpha cells)

glucagon

142

decreased pancreatic results in...

decreased levels of lipase which makes it harder to digest fat

143

steatorrhea

Decrease in the ability absorb fat-soluble vitamins and an increase in fat excreted via the gi tract, feces floats

144

3 most common glands that show a decrease in function as a person ages...

gonads, thyroid, and endocrine portion of the pancreas

145

Decreased ADH production..

more dilute urine

146

Decreased estrogen production...

loss of bone density, skin loses elasticity and becomes thinner, vaginal changes, loss of ability to have children

147

is there a decrease in glucose tolerance as you age?

yes

148

is there a decrease in metabolism as you age?

yes

149

Change in skin color...

addison's - tan, bronze; full pituitary failure - get yellow waxy color; anterior pituitary - MSH excess/deficit

150

Hard non-pitting edema could be a sign of myxedema

thyroxine, severe hypothyroidism, ability to process fluid comes to a halt

151

Delayed healing

diabetes, hypothyroidism

152

Change in skeletal structure, change in facial features, increased abdominal obesity but thinning of rest of body

acromegaly

153

Any change in hair distribution or structure of hair?

testosterone, estrogen, thyroid

154

Any edema

thyroid

155

Change in vital signs

adrenal, thyroid

156

Hypertension, tachycardia, flushing

significant hyperthyroidism, Pheochromocytoma

157

Change in respiratory pattern

adrenal, hypothyroidism

158

Weakness/Depression

adrenal, aldosterone, addison's, acromegaly, cushings

159

Change in mood

adrenal, possibly thyroid, cushing's

160

Drowsiness

Drowsiness

161

Pain

acromegaly, dwarfism, PTH, high or low calcium

162

Tremors

thyroid

163

Loss or decreased sensation

diabetes

164

Exophthalmos

bulging eyes, hyperthyroidism

165

Change in vision

type 2 diabetes, adrenal dysfunction (blood pressure), pituitary tumor - quick onset accompanied by headache

166

Glossitis

thyroid, diabetes

167

Change in weight/bowel pattern/menstrual pattern/sexual relationship/Impotence/infertility

thyroid

168

Signs of dehydration

ADH, pituitary

169

Low back pain/Bone or joint pain/Muscle cramps/Tetany

first PTH then acromegaly

170

Any chemotherapy and or radiation

higher risk for endocrine dysfunction, especially radiation in upper torso - pituitary failure

171

Tests - TSH, T3, T4

thyroid disorder

172

Tests - Thyroid titer

autoimmune

173

Test - Parathyroid Function tests

PTH levels

174

Tests for Adrenal Function

measure cortisol, Aldosterone; can do blood test but need 24 hr urine as well; looking for hormone and amt in urine, patient must know - keep in fridge/on ice, pick time, discard urine prior to start time, based on volume of urine in 24 hr, must save every specimen for full 24 hrs

175

Glucose, Insulin, HgbA1C tests

diabetes

176

Serum Cholesterol Test

adrenal, thyroid, diabetes; be under 200, if over 200 want lipid profile (cholesterol, trigl., hdl and ldl)

177

Tests of Pituitary Function

blood test but more likely MRI and CT scan; people usually have a tumor

178

Thyroid Scan

hypo/hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer

179

Radioiodine Uptake

hyroid disease; can use it to see function of thyroid; can use to destroy thyroid, will totally destroy at least a portion in 3 mos; precautions - need to sleep alone (72 hours), don't be around kids, flush toilet 3 times; do not assign a pregnant nurse or someone trying to conceive (fertility issues) to care for this person; people who have this test shed radioactive material

180

Fine needle aspiration

thyroid, pituitary to check if it is benign

181

Chevostek's sign

tap the patient's facial nerve just in front of the earlobe or near the corner of the mouth. If this prompts twitching of the facial muscles on the side tested this is a positive response that indicates hypocalcemia. The more pronounced the response the higher the degree of hypocalcemia.

182

Trousseau's sign

Place a blood pressure cuff in the usual place and pump the cuff up to a comfortable level and maintain this for three minutes. If this produces carpal spasms it is a positive response for hypocalcemia

183

Sexual Maturity Rating/Tanner

Five stages of development

184

rapid acting insulin - types

1. NovoLog

185

rapid acting insulin - onset

.25-.3 hours

186

rapid acting insulin - peak

.5-3 hours

187

rapid acting insulin - duration

3-5 hours

188

short acting insulin - types

1. Humulin R

189

short acting insulin - onset

.5 hours

190

short acting insulin - peak

2.-5 hours

191

short acting insulin - duration

5-8 hours

192

Humulin R (U-500) - onset

1.5 hours

193

Humulin R (U-500) - peak

4-12 hours

194

Humulin R (U-500)

24 hours

195

Intermediate-Acting Insulin - types

1. Humulin N

196

Intermediate-Acting Insulin - onset

.5 hours

197

Intermediate-Acting Insulin - peak

4-12 hours

198

Intermediate-Acting Insulin - duration

24 hours

199

Insulin aspart

NovoLog

200

Insulin glulisine

Apidra

201

Human lispro injection

Humalog

202

Regular human insulin injection

1. Humulin R

203

Humulin R (concentrated U-500)

Humulin R (U-500)

204

Isophane Insulin NPH injection

1. Humulin N

205

Lang-Acting Insulin - types

1. lantus

206

Lang-Acting Insulin - onset

1-4 hours

207

Lang-Acting Insulin - peak

none - 8 hours

208

Lang-Acting Insulin - duration

5.7-24 hours

209

Insulin glargine injection

Lantus

210

Insulin detemir injection

Levemir

211

Sulfonylurea - 2nd generation - function

Increase insulin secretion from pancreatic islet cells and increase sensitivity of insulin receptors on target cells

212

Sulfonylurea - 2nd generation - examples

1. Glipizide (Glucotrol)

213

Meglitinide Analogs - function

1. Increase insulin secretion from pancreatic islet cells; prevent post-meal blood glucose elevation;

214

Meglitinide Analogs - types

1. Repaglinide (Prandin)

215

Biguanides - function

Lowers basal and post-meal blood glucose by reducing hepatic glucose production and increase tissue sensitivity; reduces insulin resistance

216

Biguanides - types

Metformin (Glucophage)

217

Alpha Gucosidase Inhibitors - function

Prevent post-meal blood glucose elevation; block enzymes in the small intestine that break down complex carbs; digestion of glucose is delayed

218

Alpha Gucosidase Inhibitors - types

1. Acarbose (Precose)

219

Thiazolidinediones - function

Improves tissue sensitivity to insulin; reduce insulin resistance; inhibit hepatic glucogenesis

220

Thiazolidinediones - types

1. Pioglitazone (Actos)