Flashcards in GI - Medications Deck (43):
- any substance, usually a base, that counteracts or neutralizes stomach acid
- rapid onset/short duration
- for gastric, esophagus, duodenum: indigestion, upset/sour stomach, heartburn, gas, gerd
Do antacids raise pH?
Do antacids cause imbalances in electrolytes?
yes; low and high
what do gastric acids do to nerves?
what are the two classes of antacids?
- chemical neutralization gastric acid (sodium bicarbonate)
- absorb acid (calcium and magnesium)
antacid - chemical neutralization gastric acid
- sodium bicarbonate
-can cause acid rebound (acid returns in greater amounts)
- baking soda and water = make on own
why do you have to consider hypertensions when taking antacids?
- sodium bicarbonate
- retain more sodium
antacid - absorb acid
- calcium and magnesium
- less acid rebound effect
-prone to drug interactions
what happens if you give synthroid and antacid at the same time?
will displace the hormone, give at least two hours apart
what do aluminum ions do?
inhibit smooth muscle cell contraction and delays gastric emptying
aluminum and magnesium
- Maalox & Mylanta
H2 Receptor Antagonist
- Blocks the action of histamine on parietal cells (H2) in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells
- Histamine stimulates the secretion of stomach acid
what are the advantages of H2 receptor antagonist over antacid?
longer duration of 6-10 hours, use before meals to reduce chance of heartburn, more efficient
Proton Pump Inhibitor
- Action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production-single dose for 2-3 days
- Most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available today
- Take 7-14 days to work fully
- Proton pump is the end stage in gastric secretion-moves protein across cell membranes-secretes H+ ions into the gastric lumen
- Drug binds to the gastric proton pump-deactivates it
how much does a proton pump inhibitor reduce gastric juices?
Reduces gastric acid by secretion by up to 99%
can you crush a proton pump inhibitor?s
proton pump inhibitor - drug
- Omeprazole (Prilosec)
- Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
- Esomeprazole (Nexium)
- Pantoprazole (Protonix)
- Act by stimulating the smooth muscles of the bowel or change the consistency of stools
- What does the stimulant do, why we shouldn't use, best to use to start
laxatives - stimulant
- chemically stimulate smooth muscles of the bowel
- habit forming
laxatives - stimulant - drug
- Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
- Sennosides (Senokot)
laxative - saline
increase bulk of stools by retaining water
laxative - saline - drug
- Magnesium hydroxide (MOM)
- Magnesium citrate
laxative - bulk forming
non-digestible-increases bulk by passing through the stomach
laxative - bulk forming - drug
- Methylcellulose (Citrucel)
- Psyllium (Metamucil)
laxative - emollient
softens-does not cause a BM but allows BM without straining
laxative - emollient - drug
laxative - stimulant and softener - drug
laxative - lubricant - drug