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Nursing Fundamentals II > GI - Medications > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI - Medications Deck (43):
1

antacids

- any substance, usually a base, that counteracts or neutralizes stomach acid
- rapid onset/short duration
- for gastric, esophagus, duodenum: indigestion, upset/sour stomach, heartburn, gas, gerd

2

Do antacids raise pH?

yes

3

Do antacids cause imbalances in electrolytes?

yes; low and high

4

what do gastric acids do to nerves?

cause pain

5

what are the two classes of antacids?

- chemical neutralization gastric acid (sodium bicarbonate)
- absorb acid (calcium and magnesium)

6

antacid - chemical neutralization gastric acid

- sodium bicarbonate
-can cause acid rebound (acid returns in greater amounts)
- baking soda and water = make on own

7

why do you have to consider hypertensions when taking antacids?

- sodium bicarbonate
- retain more sodium

8

antacid - absorb acid

- calcium and magnesium
- less acid rebound effect
-prone to drug interactions

9

what happens if you give synthroid and antacid at the same time?

will displace the hormone, give at least two hours apart

10

what do aluminum ions do?

inhibit smooth muscle cell contraction and delays gastric emptying

11

tums

calcium carbonate

12

Alka-Seltzer

sodium bicarbonate

13

MOM

magnesium hydroxide

14

Amphojel

aluminum hydroxide

15

Maalox, Mylanta

aluminum and magnesium

16

antacid

- TUMS
- Alka-Seltzer
- MOM
- Amphojel
- Maalox & Mylanta
- Hydroxide

17

H2 Receptor Antagonist

- Blocks the action of histamine on parietal cells (H2) in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells
- Histamine stimulates the secretion of stomach acid

18

what are the advantages of H2 receptor antagonist over antacid?

longer duration of 6-10 hours, use before meals to reduce chance of heartburn, more efficient

19

Proton Pump Inhibitor

- Action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production-single dose for 2-3 days
- Most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available today
- Take 7-14 days to work fully
- Proton pump is the end stage in gastric secretion-moves protein across cell membranes-secretes H+ ions into the gastric lumen
- Drug binds to the gastric proton pump-deactivates it

20

how much does a proton pump inhibitor reduce gastric juices?

Reduces gastric acid by secretion by up to 99%

21

can you crush a proton pump inhibitor?s

no

22

proton pump inhibitor - drug

- Omeprazole (Prilosec)
- Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
- Esomeprazole (Nexium)
- Pantoprazole (Protonix)

23

Omeprazole

Prilosec

24

Lansoprazole

Prevacid

25

Esomeprazole

Nexium

26

Pantoprazole

Protonix

27

laxatives

- Act by stimulating the smooth muscles of the bowel or change the consistency of stools
- What does the stimulant do, why we shouldn't use, best to use to start

28

laxatives - stimulant

- chemically stimulate smooth muscles of the bowel
- habit forming

29

laxatives - stimulant - drug

- Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
- Sennosides (Senokot)

30

Bisacodyl

dulcolax

31

Sennosides

Senokot

32

laxative - saline

increase bulk of stools by retaining water

33

laxative - saline - drug

- Magnesium hydroxide (MOM)
- Magnesium citrate
- Fleet

34

laxative - bulk forming

non-digestible-increases bulk by passing through the stomach

35

laxative - bulk forming - drug

- Methylcellulose (Citrucel)
- Psyllium (Metamucil)

36

Methylcellulose

Citrucel

37

Psyllium

Metamucil

38

laxative - emollient

softens-does not cause a BM but allows BM without straining

39

laxative - emollient - drug

Docusate (colace)

40

Docusate

colace

41

laxative - stimulant and softener - drug

docusate/casanthranol (Pericolace)

42

laxative - lubricant - drug

mineral oil

43

Glycerin-R-(hyperosmotics)

softens and increases bowel action