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Flashcards in GI Cont. Deck (51)
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1

This is a much deeper peptic ulceration of the stomach wall
-may burrow through the muscular wall

Chronic peptic ulceration

2

What commonly causes Chronic peptic ulceration?

-H. Pylori
-NSAIDS
-Aspirin use
(damage the mucosal barrier)

3

______ junctions of the _______ cell lining of the stomach help prevent acidic stomach contents from damaging the deeper layers of the stomach wall

-Tight junctions
-Epithelial cell lining

4

What are prostaglandins used for in the stomach?

-Improving local blood flow in the stomach
-Allows mucus production and bicarbonate secretion
-This COUNTERBALANCES H+ secretion

5

What do aspirin and NSAIDS do to prostaglandin synthesis?

-Inhibit arachadonic acid metabolic pathways
-Decrease prostaglandin synthesis
-Gastric mucosa=vulnerable

6

What are 3 ways hemorrhage can present with?

-Melena (black poop)
-Hematochezia
-Hematemesis
-Anemia

7

Ulcers increase the risk for _______

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach

8

Ulcer=loss of _______

mucosa

9

What does the floor of the ulcer contain

-granulation tissue
-inflammatory debris

10

Describe the rim of the ulcer

-Erythemateous
-Edematous

11

What are more likely, duodenal or gastric ulcers?

Duodenal ulcers

12

_______ is a rare disease characterized by a gastrinoma in the pancreas.

Zollinger Ellison syndrome

13

Excessive gastrin causes increased acid production =

recurrent ulcers in the stomach

14

What is the most common form of stomach cancer?

-Adenocarcinomas

15

What are risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach?

-Chronic atrophic gastritis
-Smoked/pickled foods
-Nitrate food preserves
-Low fruit/veggie diets

16

This is a rare outpocketing of the jejunum

Meckel diverticulum

17

This is failure of the anterior abdominal wall to form and the intestines protrude

Gastroschisis

18

This is a less severe case of gastroschisis with less bowel protruding

Omphalocele

19

This is a very small deficit at the umbilicus

Umbilical hernia

20

This results from localized, genetic absence of the autonomic ganglionic plexus in the colon wall that controls peristalsis

Hirschsprung Disease

21

What effects does Hirschsprung's disease have on the body

-No peristalsis
-Impaired fecal movement
-Poop backs up upstream
-Overgrowth of bacteria
-Severe inflammation

22

These are dilated anal varices?

-Internal and external hemorrhoids

23

S&S of hemorrhoids

-Bleed regularly
-Leave bight red blood on stool surface
-Painful
-Itchy

24

Who commonly has hemorrhoids?

-Older people
-Pregnancy (due to increased BV and venous stasis)
-Portal hypertension

25

This is the twisting of the bowel

-Volvulus

26

Describe the internal and external infarcted bowel

Infarcted bowel is EDEMATOUS
- Internal= extensive hemorrhage in the mucosa and submucosa

27

What happens to the damaged wall?

-Becomes leaky

28

What results from the leaky damaged wall

-Peritonitis
-Septicemia

29

This occurs when C. Difficle overgrows

Pseudomembranous colitis

30

Describe C. Dif

-Gram Positive
-Anaerobic
-Spore forming bacteria