Flashcards in GI Deck (71)
What is the major function of the GI system?
Why is the GI tract susceptible , and how does this compare to the respiratory tract?
Both the GI and respiratory tract are open to the environment
-Susceptible for invasion by microbes
What are examples of your bodies defenses that help protect your GI and respiratory tract?
-Normal flora (to outcompete most ingested microbes)
What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract? (inner to outer)
-Muscle (longitudinal and circular)
Describe the function of teeth
Teeth break down food by tearing and grinding it
Describe the function of saliva (what does it specifically start to break down?)
Saliva begins carbohydrate digestion
Describe how food gets to the stomach?
Esophagus moves food bolus to the stomach via peristalsis
What are the 3 things that are leased by the stomach?
What does pepsinogen do?
Begins protein digestion
What does gastrin do?
-Stimulates gastric acid secretion
-Stimulates pancreatic enzyme release
-Liver bile production
What does Somatostatin do?
-Inhibits insulin secretion
What produces Somatostatin?
The small intestine receives 3 components to help in digestion?
What does bile do?
What does pancreatic amylase and lipase do?
Fat and carbohydrate digestion
What allows the SI to absorb large amounts?
Large surface area with villi and microvilli for ABSORPTION
What does the LI do?
-Absorb water and electrolytes
-Compacts feces and transports them to the rectum for storage
Where are wastes emptied from?
Describe the mesentery
-Double layered sheet of peritoneum that SUSPENDS THE BOWEL and ATTACHES IT TO THE BODY WALL
What provides a path for arteries and veins to an from the GI tract?
These are macroscopic folds in the SI that help add to the increase in surface area?
_____ are numerous and on the mucosal surface
The small intestine also contains _________
Submucosal collections of lymphoid tissue (Peyer patches)
What covers each villus?
Columnar epithelial cells with a "BRUSH BORDER" of microvilli
(Further increases surface area)
These are mucus secreting cells that are spread out in the intestinal epithelium
_______ is caused by bacteria that erode enamel and invade tooth structure (arguably the most common disease in the world).
______ results from bacterial invasion of gingival pockets around the tooth root
______ is inflammation of the superficial gums, leading to retraction and exposure of the root
What is the root cause of periodontitis
Bacterial invasion downward into the soft tissues around the tooth root