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Flashcards in GI Deck (71)
1

What is the major function of the GI system?

-Ingest
-Transport
-Absorb nutrients

2

Why is the GI tract susceptible , and how does this compare to the respiratory tract?

Both the GI and respiratory tract are open to the environment
-Susceptible for invasion by microbes

3

What are examples of your bodies defenses that help protect your GI and respiratory tract?

-MALT
-Acidic Stomach
-Normal flora (to outcompete most ingested microbes)

4

What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract? (inner to outer)

-Mucosa
-Submucosa
-Muscle (longitudinal and circular)
-Serosa

5

Describe the function of teeth

Teeth break down food by tearing and grinding it

6

Describe the function of saliva (what does it specifically start to break down?)

Saliva begins carbohydrate digestion

7

Describe how food gets to the stomach?

Esophagus moves food bolus to the stomach via peristalsis

8

What are the 3 things that are leased by the stomach?

-Hydrochloric acid
-Pepsinogen
-Gastrin

9

What does pepsinogen do?

Begins protein digestion

10

What does gastrin do?

-Stimulates gastric acid secretion
-Stimulates pancreatic enzyme release
-Liver bile production
-Intestinal peristalsis

11

What does Somatostatin do?

-Inhibits somatotropin
-Inhibits insulin secretion
-Gastrin secretion

12

What produces Somatostatin?

Pancreas

13

The small intestine receives 3 components to help in digestion?

-Bile
-Pancreatic lipase/amylase

14

What does bile do?

Emulsify fat

15

What does pancreatic amylase and lipase do?

Fat and carbohydrate digestion

16

What allows the SI to absorb large amounts?

Large surface area with villi and microvilli for ABSORPTION

17

What does the LI do?

-Absorb water and electrolytes
-Compacts feces and transports them to the rectum for storage

18

Where are wastes emptied from?

the Anus

19

Describe the mesentery

-Double layered sheet of peritoneum that SUSPENDS THE BOWEL and ATTACHES IT TO THE BODY WALL

20

What provides a path for arteries and veins to an from the GI tract?

Mesentery

21

These are macroscopic folds in the SI that help add to the increase in surface area?

Plicae

22

_____ are numerous and on the mucosal surface

Villi

23

The small intestine also contains _________

Submucosal collections of lymphoid tissue (Peyer patches)

24

What covers each villus?

Columnar epithelial cells with a "BRUSH BORDER" of microvilli
(Further increases surface area)

25

These are mucus secreting cells that are spread out in the intestinal epithelium

Goblet cells

26

_______ is caused by bacteria that erode enamel and invade tooth structure (arguably the most common disease in the world).

Caries

27

______ results from bacterial invasion of gingival pockets around the tooth root

Periodontal disease

28

______ is inflammation of the superficial gums, leading to retraction and exposure of the root

Gingivitis

29

What is the root cause of periodontitis

Bacterial invasion downward into the soft tissues around the tooth root

30

These are small shallow ulcers of unknown etiology that heal quickly
-Also known are Canker sores

Aphthous ulcers

31

T/F- Most people have been infected by oral herpesvirus by age 5

True

32

Why/how does reactivation of oral herpesvirus occur?

-Reactivation as cold sores or fever blisters
-Actually represent the reactivation and replication of the dormant virus from within the nerve tissue (usually the trigeminal ganglion)

33

What are 3 main causes of thrush?

-Immunocomprimised
-On corticosteroids
-Antibiotic therapy

34

Can you scrape off thrush?

Yes

35

This is a white patch of oral squamous mucosa

Leukoplakia

36

What can leukoplakia lead to?

-Squamous cell carcinoma

37

What are the major risk factors for leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma?

-Smoking
-Alcohol abuse

38

What areas in the mouth are these located and often missed on examination?

-Under the tongue on the floor of the oral cavity
-Survival rates here are worse than the lip

39

This is inflammation of the salivary glands

Sialadenitis

40

What causes sialadenitis?

-Sialolith (calcified stone most common in SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND)

41

What are other causes of sialadentis?

-Bacteria (S. aureus)
-Virus (mumps-effects parotid gland- but yes vaccine)
-Autoimmune

42

This is a salivary and lacrimal gland autoimmune inflammation

Sjögren syndrome

43

What are S&S for Sjögren syndrome

-Dry eyes
-Dry mouth

44

This is a tumor, mostly benign, of the salivary glands

Pleomorphic adenoma

45

What salivary gland is most effected by pleomorphic adenoma

Parotid gland- removal is difficult because due to the fear of damaging facial nerves

46

What are some symptoms of esophageal disease?

-Dysphagia
-Odynophagia (pain with swallowing)
-Hematemesis (bleeding)

47

______ is a spastic (increased muscle tone) condition of the lower esophageal sphincter

Achalasia

48

What does Achalasia produce?

-Functional partial obstruction in the lower esophagus
-Causes dysphagia and esophageal pain

49

______ is a protrusion of the cardia region of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus into the thoracic cavity

Hiatal hernia

50

What are S&S for hiatal hernias?

-Dysphagia
-Pyrosis (heartburn)

51

________ is lacerations in the esophagus secondary to retching/vomiting (e.g. bulimia, alcoholism).

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

52

This is esophageal rupture

Boerhaave syndrome

53

_______ are dilated veins due to re-routing of blood from the portal circulation back to the systemic circulation (they form for the same reasons that hemorrhoids form)

Esophageal varices

54

Patients with ______ often have esophageal varices

Cirrhosis

55

Describe why esophageal varices occur in cirrhosis

-Lower esophagus veins drain into the IVC or gastric/portal vein
-Goes through the liver
-Liver becomes fibrotic in cirrhosis
-Back up of portal blood
-Increased pressure
-Reverses flow
-Esophageal veins become more dilated and prone to rupture

56

-Most common GI disorder
-Backward movement of gastric contents to the esophagus

GERD

57

Fancy word for heart burn

Pyrosis

58

What are some risks for GERD

-Large meals
-Fatty meals
-EtOH
-Caffeine
-Smoking
-Chocolate
-Hiatal hernia

59

Explain the progression from normal to Barretts esophagus

-Weak esophageal sphincter
-Reflux of gastric contents
-Mucosal injury
-Inflammation and hyperemia
-Metaplasia aka Barretts esophagus

60

Normal esophagus epithelium= _______ cells

Squamous epithelium

61

Normal stomach epithelium= _______ cells

Columnar cells

62

S&S of Barretts esophagus

-Painful
-Narrowing because of fibrous scars
-ulcers
-Adenocarcinoma

63

Risk factors for Barretts esophagus

-Smoking
-Alcohol abuse

64

What is the most common cancer from Barretts esophagus?

-Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

65

This is inflammation of the gastric mucosa

Gastritis

66

What cause gastritis?

-Aspirin
-NSAIDS
-Excessive alcohol

67

Pathogenesis of gastritis

-Mucosal breakdown and repeated acid injury
-Acute inflammatory response
-Widespread necrosis
-Erosions develop
-Bleeding may occur

68

These are multiple superficial ulcers in patients with brain injury

Acute gastric ulcers

69

What color is the blood on the ulcers surface in an acute gastric stress ulcer

Black- due to the acid environment

70

Are acute stress ulcers superficial or deep?

Superficial

71

What causes acute gastric erosions?

-Severe trauma
-Sepsis
-Major surgery
-Grave Illnesses
-Alcohol abuse
-Extensive burns
-CNS trauma or surgery
-Chronic NSAID or corticosteroid use