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Flashcards in GI Deck (71)
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1

What is the major function of the GI system?

-Ingest
-Transport
-Absorb nutrients

2

Why is the GI tract susceptible , and how does this compare to the respiratory tract?

Both the GI and respiratory tract are open to the environment
-Susceptible for invasion by microbes

3

What are examples of your bodies defenses that help protect your GI and respiratory tract?

-MALT
-Acidic Stomach
-Normal flora (to outcompete most ingested microbes)

4

What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract? (inner to outer)

-Mucosa
-Submucosa
-Muscle (longitudinal and circular)
-Serosa

5

Describe the function of teeth

Teeth break down food by tearing and grinding it

6

Describe the function of saliva (what does it specifically start to break down?)

Saliva begins carbohydrate digestion

7

Describe how food gets to the stomach?

Esophagus moves food bolus to the stomach via peristalsis

8

What are the 3 things that are leased by the stomach?

-Hydrochloric acid
-Pepsinogen
-Gastrin

9

What does pepsinogen do?

Begins protein digestion

10

What does gastrin do?

-Stimulates gastric acid secretion
-Stimulates pancreatic enzyme release
-Liver bile production
-Intestinal peristalsis

11

What does Somatostatin do?

-Inhibits somatotropin
-Inhibits insulin secretion
-Gastrin secretion

12

What produces Somatostatin?

Pancreas

13

The small intestine receives 3 components to help in digestion?

-Bile
-Pancreatic lipase/amylase

14

What does bile do?

Emulsify fat

15

What does pancreatic amylase and lipase do?

Fat and carbohydrate digestion

16

What allows the SI to absorb large amounts?

Large surface area with villi and microvilli for ABSORPTION

17

What does the LI do?

-Absorb water and electrolytes
-Compacts feces and transports them to the rectum for storage

18

Where are wastes emptied from?

the Anus

19

Describe the mesentery

-Double layered sheet of peritoneum that SUSPENDS THE BOWEL and ATTACHES IT TO THE BODY WALL

20

What provides a path for arteries and veins to an from the GI tract?

Mesentery

21

These are macroscopic folds in the SI that help add to the increase in surface area?

Plicae

22

_____ are numerous and on the mucosal surface

Villi

23

The small intestine also contains _________

Submucosal collections of lymphoid tissue (Peyer patches)

24

What covers each villus?

Columnar epithelial cells with a "BRUSH BORDER" of microvilli
(Further increases surface area)

25

These are mucus secreting cells that are spread out in the intestinal epithelium

Goblet cells

26

_______ is caused by bacteria that erode enamel and invade tooth structure (arguably the most common disease in the world).

Caries

27

______ results from bacterial invasion of gingival pockets around the tooth root

Periodontal disease

28

______ is inflammation of the superficial gums, leading to retraction and exposure of the root

Gingivitis

29

What is the root cause of periodontitis

Bacterial invasion downward into the soft tissues around the tooth root

30

These are small shallow ulcers of unknown etiology that heal quickly
-Also known are Canker sores

Aphthous ulcers