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What are 2 causes of iron deficiency anemia

o Most common nutritional deficiency
o Chronic Blood loss


Characteristics of the cells in iron deficiency anemia

o Microcytic hypochromic
o Small cells and pale
o Loss of iron or decrease ingestion of iron


Characteristics of iron

o Iron is absorbed through the GI tract and you normally lose some each day
o Iron is recycled when RBC die
o Look at iron levels and iron storage
o Iron is stored in the liver in the form of ferratin
o Iron is low during Iron Deficiency Anemia


Characteristics of ferratin

• Ferratin is directly related to iron levels
• Found in the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle
• Ferratin varies directly with iron
• Ferratin can be low or normal


Characteristics of transferrin

• A blood protein that transports iron from one place to another by binding to it
• Made by the liver
• High transferrin in Iron Deficiency Anemia


What is Total iron binding capacity

• The degree to which the potential transporting capacity is occupied by actual plasma iron


Does iron defiency anemia have high/low transferrin levels

High- the are inversely related to iron levels
o The body is trying to deliver more iron to the bone marrow
• Refection of the liver making more transport iron


What are symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia

o Fatigue
o Weakness
o Pallor


Treatment of iron deficiency anemia

Oral Iron supplements


What are causes of megaloblastic/macrocytic anemia

-B12 or folic acids deficiency


What is necessary for DNA synthesis

B12 and folic acid
o No B12 or folic acid=no DNA production= Decreased production of cells


Does RNA synthesis stop when DNA syntheisis stops?

o DNA synthesis stops but RNA synthesis continues so you get fewer cells with a large nucleus and abundant cytoplasm


What do the cells look like

• Characterized by macrocytic cells
o The cells are enlarged because of the lack of folate and B12


Who is at risk for macrocytic anemia?

o Vegetarians- they lack B12
o People who lack intestinal absorption- can’t absorb B12 so your body is short


Why would you lack intestinal absorption?

 Crones Disease
 Gastric Bypass
 Short Bowel Syndrome
-or lack intrinsic factor


What does intrinsic factor do?

 Necessary for the absorption of B12
 Protein secreted by the gastric mucosa
 IF binds to the dietary B12 and travels to the ilium to be absorbed


What are situations when you have a problem with intrinsic factor?

• Gastrectomy
• Resection of the ileum
• Inflammatory Bowel Disease


What is another effect of B12 deficiency?

Pernicious Anemia


Characteristics of Pernicious Anemia

• Autoimmune disease that features autoantibodies against your gastric mucosal cells and IF
• Inability to produce IF
• These cells ensure that dietary B12 will not be absorbed by the ilium


What are characteristics of anemia of chronic disease?

• Low output of RBC by the bone marrow, but have the ability and the nutrients to have functional RBC
• Depresses bone marrow production


When is anemia of chronic disease typically seen?

Renal failure and cancer


What are 3 pathological mechanisms of anemia of chronic disease?

o RBC survival is shortened
o Erythropoiesis is impaired
o Iron reutilization is impaired


Characteristics of the cells in anemia of chronic disease

-Normocytic normochromic anemia


Characteristics of Aplastic Anemia

• Bone marrow failure
• Results in pancytopenia
• Failure to produce all marrow elements
o Red cells, white cells, and megakaryocytes


What are side effects of aplastic anemia

o Hemorrhage due to low platelets
o Infection bc Low WBC


How are the cells in aplastic anemia

normocytic normochromic


What can cause aplastic anemia

• Can be idiopathic, autoimmune, or hypocellular bone marrow, lots of fat content


Characteristics of polycythemia

• Excessive number of red cells in the blood


How many types of polycythemia are there?



What are the types of polycythemia

o Relative
o Absolute